CH 10, 11, 14

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expressive violence
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___________ is violence that is designed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger, or frustration.
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prefrontal cortex
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Neuroscientists claim to have found differences in both the limbic system and the ________________ of the brain that separates aggressive, violent people from the more level-headed and reasonable.
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systemic link
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The link between substance abuse and violence appears in three different formats. The format or concept of ______________ reflects the violent behavior that results from gang conflict inherent in the drug trade.
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subculture of violence
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In the ____________ a potent theme of violence influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships.
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hypermasculinity
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Violent rates are highest in urban areas where subcultural values support gangs that typically embrace the use of violence. The culture which houses gangs associates honor with _______________ and the use of violence to protect reputation.
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date rape
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Rape involving people in some form of romantic relationship is known as __________.
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statutory rape
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____________ occurs when there are sexual relations between an underage (minor) victim and an adult.
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shield laws
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____________ protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case.
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second-degree murder
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_____________ requires the killer to have malice aforethought but not premeditation or deliberation.
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serial murder
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__________ involves the killing three or more persons in three or more separate events. In between the murders, the killer reverts to his/her normal lifestyle.
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murder transactions
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A sequential pattern of behavior between the offender and the victim that ultimately results in homicide is known as ________________.
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spousal abuse
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Excessive alcohol use, access to a weapon, estrangement, obsession with a partner’s behavior, flashes of anger, and men who are under economic stress are predictors of ______________.
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child abuse
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____________ describes any physical or emotional trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation, such as an accident or ordinary disciplinary practices, can be found.
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opportunist robbers
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Robbers who rob to obtain small amounts of money when an accessible target presents itself are called ____________.
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hate crimes
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___________ are violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic.
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political crime
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The term ___________ is used to signify illegal acts that are designed to undermine an existing government and threaten its survival.
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religious
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The motivations behind political crimes may stem from ___________ or ideological sources.
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pseudo-convicition
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Some political criminals conceal conventional criminal motivations behind a mask of conviction and altruism. These criminals are particularly dangerous because they convince followers to join them without fully revealing their true motivations. This type of motivation is _______________.
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intimidation
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Some political criminals are motivated by ___________. They want to threaten an opponent who does not share their political orientation or views.
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election fraud
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____________ is illegal interference with the process on an election.
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treason
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As the only crime contained therein, the United States Constitution defines _________ as levying war against the United States or \”…adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.\”
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espionage
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If one engages in the crime of ____________, that person obtains information about a government, organization, or society that is considered secret or confidential and does so without the permission of the holder of the information.
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industrial espionage
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When spying involves corporations and involves the bribing of employees to reveal trade secrets, the crime is referred to as ______________.
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waterboarding
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_____________ involves immobilizing a person on his or her back and pouring water over the face and into the breathing passages producing an immediate gag reflex and an experience akin to drowning; the subject believes their death is imminent.
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revolutionaries
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_____________ are individuals who take part in a civil war against a sovereign power that holds control of the land or over issues of ideology and power who may rely on violence or nonviolence.
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guerillas
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_________ are armed military bands, typically located in rural areas, that attack military, police and government officials in an effort to destabilize the existing government.
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political terrorism
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____________ is directed at people or groups who oppose the terrorists’ political ideology or who the terrorists define as \”outsiders\” who must be destroyed.
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eco-terrorism
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____________ involves groups that engage in violent actions to protect the environment.
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psychological view
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The ______________ of terrorist motivation describes the typical terrorist as an emotionally disturbed individual who acts out his or her psychoses within the confines of violent groups.
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patriot act
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The ___________, passed in 2001, gave sweeping new powers to domestic law enforcement and international intelligence agencies in an effort to fight terrorism. This legislation expanded all traditional tools of surveillance.
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public order crimes
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Acts that are considered illegal because they threaten the general well-being of society and challenge its accepted moral principles are known as ______________.
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public morality
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According to Sir Patrick Devlin, so-called victimless crimes should be prohibited because one of the functions of criminal laws is to express a shared sense of ____________.
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moral crusaders
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Interest groups that attempt to control social life and the legal order to promote their own personal set of moral values are referred to as ___________.
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paraphilias
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______________ are bizarre or abnormal sexual practices involving recurrent sexual urges.
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prostitution
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___________ is the granting of nonmarital sexual access, established by mutual agreement, for remuneration.
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sex tourism
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____________ is a booming business whereby men from wealthy nations engage in sexual activities with trafficked individuals by traveling to destinations where women and children are prostituted.
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pornography
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____________ is material that is used to provide sexual titillation and excitement for paying customers.
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obscenity
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____________ is derived from the Latin caenum, for \”filth\” and is defined by Webster’s dictionary as \”deeply offensive to morality or decency…designed to incite to lust or depravity.\”
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kiddie porn
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The product that results from the creation and distribution of pornography in which virtual children are indistinguishable from real children is known as _____________.
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opium
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Drug use is not a new concept. Mesopotamian writings indicate that ________ was used 5,000 years ago – it was known as the \”plant of joy.\”
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temperance movement
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The _____________ was an effort to prohibit the sale of liquor in the United States that resulted in the passage of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution in 1919.
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genetic
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Studies of the ____________ basis of substance abuse suggest that people whose parents were alcoholic or drug dependent have a greater chance of developing a problem than children of non-abusers.
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problem behavior syndrome
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Longitudinal studies indicate that drug abusers are maladjusted, alienated, and emotionally distressed and that drug use is only one among a number of many social problems. This causal explanation of substance abuse is termed ______________.
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community strategy
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When representatives of local government agencies, churches, and civic organizations join in drug-control efforts it is termed a ______________.
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education strategies
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School programs designed to give students the skills for resisting peer pressure to experiment with tobacco, drugs, and alcohol are called _____________.
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a
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While traditional forms of prostitution may be in decline, _____________, that uses the internet to shield identities and contact clients, may be responsible for the resurgence in sex for hire, especially in times of economic turmoil. a. ehooking b. Craigslist c. social networking d. chatrooms
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a
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Destroying overseas drug crops and arresting members of drug cartels are examples of what type of drug control strategy? a. source control strategy b. interdiction strategy c. law enforcement strategy d. punishment strategy
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a
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Of all the commonly practiced paraphilias, attaining sexual pleasure through sexual activity with prepubescent children is of most concern. This is known as: a. pedophilia b. frotteurism c. asphyxiophilia d. voyeurism
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b
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Among outlawed sexual behavior is ________________, in which a person rubs against or touches a nonconsenting person in a crowd, elevator, or other public area. a. transvestite fetishism b. frotteurism c. asphyxiophilia d. voyeurism
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a
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Obtaining sexual pleasure from spying on a stranger while he or she disrobes or engages in sexual behavior with another is known as: a. voyeurism b. frotteurism c. asphyxiophilia d. transvestite fetishism
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d
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Bizarre or abnormal sexual practices involving recurrent sexual urges focused on nonhuman objects, humiliation or pain, or children is termed: a. voyeurism b. asphyxiophilia c. pedophila d. paraphilia
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d
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Interest groups that attempt to control social life and the legal order in order to promote their own personal set of moral values are known as: a. social crusaders b. decency crusaders c. righteous crusaders d. moral crusaders
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a
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Legislation of moral issues has continually frustrated lawmakers. Whereas, it is easy to determine and sympathize with a victim of an assault or robbery, it is more difficult to sympathize with victims of immoral acts, especially if the parties involved are willing participants. This moral conundrum has resulted in the problematic crime label called: a. victimless crimes b. morality crimes c. social harm offenses d. decency offenses
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b
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Violence acts that vent rage, anger, or frustration are known as: a. instrumental violence b. expressive violence c. rational violence d. irrational violence
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a
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Violent acts designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal are known as: a. instrumental violence b. expressive violence c. rational violence d. irrational violence
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b
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According to Freud, the instinctual drive that produces self-destruction expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide or alcoholism, is termed: a. eros b. thanatos c. hostility d. aggression
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d
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The link between substance abuse and violence occurs in three different formats. Violent behavior that results from the conflict inherent in the drug trade is known as: a. the subculture of violence b. psychopharmacological relationship c. economic compulsive behavior d. systemic link
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d
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Athens links violence to early experiences with child abuse. Which is the proper ordering of how antisocial careers develop under this link? a.brutalization process, virulency stage, violent performances b.violent performances, brutalization process, virulency stage c.virulency stage, violent performances, brutalization process d.brutalization process, violent performances, virulency stage
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b
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Much of the difference in rates of violent crime between whites and racial minorities can be explained by minorities being forced to live in high crime neighborhoods, which: a. provide a poorer quality of schooling b. increases their risk of exposure to violence c. contain few social interaction opportunities d. provide a lack of legitimate economic opportunities
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c
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Within subcultures of violence, it is considered appropriate for an individual who has been offended by a negative outcome in a dispute to seek reparations through violent means. This concept is termed: a. brutalization process b. thanatos c. disputatiousness d. malefic
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b
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A potent theme of violence that influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships is known as: a. cultural retaliatory homicide b. subculture of violence c. disputatiousness d. brutalization process
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a
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Some nations have relatively high violence rates. Which of the following national characteristics does not predict violence? a. robust economy b. a high level of social disorganization c. high child abuse rates d. political corruption
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d
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A rape in which the goal is sexual conquest and the amount of force used is not excessive as the attacker does not want to harm his/her victim is known as: a. anger rape b. gang rape c. serial rape d. power rape
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a
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Rapists that are bound up in ritual in which they torment and torture their victims are labeled: a. sadistic rapists b. anger rapists c. gang rapists d. power rapists
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a
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Which of the following causal explanations for rape reflects the evolutionary view? a. The sexual urge corresponds to the unconscious need to preserve the species by spreading one’s genes as widely as possible. b. Rape is a legitimate response if one’s sexual advances are rebuffed c. Rape is a function of modern male socialization. d. Infatuation and fixation with one’s self drives rapists to seek power and control over those deemed inferior to themselves.
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d
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Which of the following is not a factor that predicts spousal abuse? a. flashes of anger b. military service c. the presence of alcohol d. economic stability
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d
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What characteristic is false when describing retributive terrorists? a. The true target of the terrorist act extends far beyond those directly affected by the attack. b. Victims are usually selected for their maximum propaganda value. c. Unconventional military tactics are used, especially secrecy and surprise. d. Violent actions are undertaken to replace the existing government and for an independent homeland.
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d
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The first terrorist activities were committed by members of minority religious groups who engaged in violence to accomplish all but which of the following? a. Gain the right to practice their own form of religion. b. Establish the supremacy of their own religion over others. c. Meet the requirements of the blood-thirsty gods they worshipped. d. Promote subservience to governmental entities.
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b
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The process of holding and physically abusing enemy agents in secret prisons around the world without the benefit of due process is known as a. detainment b. rendition c. torture d. terrorism
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a
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According to this motivational view, terrorists have been raised to hate their opponents and learn at an early age that they have been victimized by some oppressor. a. socialization view b. alienation view c. psychological view d. ideological view
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c
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The _____________ view suggests that terrorists may be motivated by feelings of ______________ and failure to maintain the tools to compete in a post-technological society. These terrorists believe a suicide mission will cleanse them of the corruption of the modern world. a. socialization; disconnection b. psychological; inadequacy c. alienation; alienation d. ideological; self-sacrifice
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c
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This type of terrorist group uses violence to frighten those in power with the aim of replacing the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views. a. nationalist terrorists b. political terrorists c. revolutionary terrorists d. retributive terrorists
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d
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______________________ are perpetrated by state authorities against the people they are supposed to serve in an effort to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government. a. Industrial espionage and treason b. Insurgencies c. State-corporate crimes d. State political crimes
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d
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In the \”__________\” stage of the cognitive process of becoming a political criminal, the individual concludes that the undesirable condition is a product of injustice – that is, it does not apply to everyone. a. \”It’s not right.\” b. \”You’re evil.\” c. \”It’s your fault.\” d. \”It’s not fair.\”
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d
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Randy Borum’s cognitive stages of becoming a political criminal seem similar to what social process theory? a. differential association theory b. social bond theory c. social learning theory d. neutralization theory
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battery
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The crime that requires offensive touching, such as slapping, hitting, or punching a victim is ____________.
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dabblers
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________ are what levin called people who are not committed to hate but drift in and out of active bigotry
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intimate partner
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Women are most likely to be stalked by a(n) _________.
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human traits and makeup, evolutionary factors and human instinct, substance abuse, improper socialization and upbringing, exposure to violence, and cultural values
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Among the explanations for violence are _________, ________, ___________, __________, ___________, and ___________.
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absent or deviant parents, inconsistent discipline, physical abuse, lack of supervision, and physical punishment
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There are 5 main issues that have been empirically linked to later life criminality: 1. ________ 2. ________ 3. ________ 4. ________ 5. ________
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crusted over
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Children living in violent conditions become \”________.\”
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sympathizers
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_________ may not attack a minority but think nothing of telling jokes with racial themes or agreeing with people who despise gays.
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spectators
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________ may not actively participate in bigotry but who do nothing to stop its course.
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dabblers, sympathizers, spectators
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The commission of hate crimes include: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______
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intimidation, revolution, profit, conviction, pseudo-conviction
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There are 5 goals of political crime: 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______
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election fraud, treason, espionage, state political crime, torture
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There are 5 recognized types of political crime: 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______
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terrorism
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_______ means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.
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premeditate, politically motivated
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Terrorism means _____________ violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.
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non-combatant targets
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Terrorism means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against __________ by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.
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insurgents
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____________ are organized into covert groups who engage in an organized campaign of extreme violence with a distinct political agenda.
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organized campaign
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Insurgents are organized into covert groups who engage in an ________ of extreme violence with a distinct political agenda.
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networks, terror cells
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Terror groups are organized in one of 2 ways: 1. _________ 2. _________
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networks
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________ are loosely organized groups located in different parts of a city, state, or country (or worldwide) that share a common theme or purpose, but have a diverse leadership and command structure and are only in intermittent communication.
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vigilantes
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_________ held strict standards of morality that, when they caught their prey, resulted in swift justice.
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asphyxiophilia
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________ uses a noose, ligature, plastic bag, mask, volatile chemicals, chest compression, or attempting partial asphyxia and oxygen deprivation to the brain to enhance sexual gratification.
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exhibitionism
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________ is deriving sexual pleasures from exposing the genitals to surprise or shock a stranger.
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sadomasochism
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________ is deriving pleasure from receiving pain or inflicting pain on another.
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Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 (CPPA)
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The _____________ outlawed sexually related material that used or appeared to use children under 18 engaging in sexual conduct.
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PROTECT Act of 2003
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The __________ outlawed virtual kiddie porn that makes it almost impossible to distinguish the difference between a real child and a morphed or created image.
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freedom fighters
answer

Because the concept of political crime is highly subjective, people who some label as terrorists may be viewed by others as _______.
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urban, rural
answer

While the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, a terrorist has a/an _______focus and a guerilla has a/an ________ focus.
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state-sponsored
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When a repressive government regime forces its citizens into obedience, oppresses minorities, and stifles political dissent, it is considered _______.
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electoral fraud
answer

In some third world dictatorships, __________ is the norm and it is common for the ruling party to announce that, after party members counted the votes, that they were returned to office with an overwhelming majority.
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terrorism
answer

An act is considered __________________ when it carries with it the intent to disrupt and change the government and emphasizes violence as a mechanism to promote change.
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ticking bomb scenario
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According to the _____________________, torture can be justified in order to force a political criminal to reveal the location of an explosive device before it can go off and kill many people.
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civil rights
answer

Critics of the USA Patriot Act are concerned that it erodes ________.
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USA Patriot Act
answer

Critics of the ________ are concerned that it erodes civil rights.
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terror cells
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Regardless of what organizational structure is used, most terrorist groups subdivide their affiliates into _________________ for both organizational and security purposes.
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illegal interference with
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Election fraud is ___________________ the process of an election.
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nationalist
answer

____________ terrorism promotes the interests of a minority ethnic or religious groups, such as the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes to carve out its own independent homeland.
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espionage
answer

_______________ involves obtaining information illegally by covert means, or through threat or payoff people who know the information and will divulge it.
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revolutionary terrorists
answer

________ use violence to frighten those in power with the aim of replacing the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views.
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torture
answer

The use of _______ would be an example of a state political crime.
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state political crime
answer

The use of torture would be an example of a _______.
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Mann Act
answer

_______ prohibited bringing women into the country or transporting them across state lines for the purposes of prostitution.
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obscenity
answer

The problem of controlling pornography centers on the definition of _______.
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lower-class
answer

The subcultural view of substance abuse concentrates on ____ addiction.
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to cause to stand in front of
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The term prostitution derives from the Latin prostituere, which means \”_________.\”
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skeezers
answer

Prostitutes who barter drugs for sex are ________.
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circuit travelers
answer

Prostitutes who move around in groups of two or three to lumber, labor, and agricultural camps are known as _________.
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stash dealers
answer

According to Tunnell, dealers who sold drugs to maintain a consistent access to drugs for their own consumption are known as _________.
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call girls
answer

___________________ are the aristocrats of prostitution and many come from middle-class backgrounds and service upper-class customers.
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binge drinking
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________________________ is defined as having five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
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call house
answer

A relatively new form of prostitution that combines brothels with call girl rings is known as a ___________.
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street walkers
answer

________ are considered the least attractive, lowest paid, most vulnerable men and women in their profession.
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Brutalization stage, belligerency stage, violent performance stage, virulency stage
answer

Regarding socialization and upbringing to become socialized into violence, one must complete the full cycle of the \”violentization process\” of which there are 4 stages: 1. ________ 2. ________ 3. ________ 4. ________
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frontier culture
answer

Relatively high violence rates in the United States can be traced to a _______ that was characterized by racism and preoccupation with personal honor.
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power, anger, sadism
answer

According to Nicholas Groth, an expert on classifying and treating sex offenders, every rape encounter contains at least one of these three elements: 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______
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gang rape, serial rape, acquaintance rape, date rape, marital rape, statutory rape
answer

There are 6 widely accepted types of rapist: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______ 5. _______ 6. _______
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psychological view, alienation view, socialization/friendship view, and religious/ideological view
answer

Terrorists are generally motivated in one of 4 ways that are seen as the terrorists view: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______
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religious, ideological
answer

The nature of Political Crimes are generally categorized into two types: 1. _______ 2. _______

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