CGS 3300 Midterm

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Application
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a computer program designed to support a specific task or business process
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Ethics are the principals of right and wrong that individuals used to guide their behavior. The three tenets of ethics are responsibility, liability, and accountability. Responsibility means you accept the consequences. Liability is the legal concept that allows individuals to recover the damages done to them. Accountability is determining who is responsible for the actions that were taken. The four ethical issues that relate to IT are privacy issues, accuracy issues, property issues, and accessibility issues. Accuracy involves the authenticity of the info collected. Property involve the ownership and value of info. Privacy involves collecting, storing, and dissenting info about individuals. Accessibility involves who should have access to this info and how they should pay for it
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Define ethics, list and describe the three fundamental tenets of ethics, and describe the four categories of ethical issues related to IT.
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An information system exposure is:
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The possibility that an information resource will be lost or damaged.
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Torrent
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A tiny piece of data that facilitates file sharing by many users.
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Business Intelligence Systems
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provide a computer based support for complex, non routine decisions, primarily for middle managers and knowledge workers
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Computer-based information systems
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An information system that uses computer technology to perform some of all of its intended tasks
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dashboards
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a special form of IS that supports all managers of the organization by providing rapid access to timely information and direct access to structured information in the form of reports
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data items
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elementary descriptions of things, events, activities, and transactions that re recorded, classified, and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meanings
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database
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a collection of related files or tables containing data.
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electronic commerce system
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a type of inter organizational information system that enables organizations to conduct transactions, called business-to-business electronic commerce, and customer to conduct transactions with businesses, called business-to-consumer electronic commerce.
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Twisted Pair- Wire
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Cheap; Easy; Slow; low security;
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Coaxial Cable
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for tv; low to medium security; somewhat difficult; electromagnetic interference
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fiber optic- cable
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inexpensive; high security; difficult to work with; high speed
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enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
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Is that correct a lack of communication among the FAISs by tightly integrating the functional area ISs via a common database
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ergonomics
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the science of adapting machines and work environments to people with the goal of creating an environment that is safe, well lit, and comfortable.
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expert systems (ESs)
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attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain
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functional area information systems (FAIS)
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Is that support a particular functional area within the organization
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hardware
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a device such as a processor, monitor, keyboard, or printer. Together, these devices accept data and information, process them, and display them
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information
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data that have been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient
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information system (IS)
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collects, process, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose
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Information Technology (IT)
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relates to any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information processing needs of an organization.
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information technology components
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hardware, software, databases, and networks
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information technology infrastructure
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IT components plus IT services
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Information technology platform
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formed by the IT components of hardware, software, networks (wireline and wireless), and databases
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information technology services
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IT personnel use IT components to perform these IT services: develop informations systems, oversee security and risk, and manage data.
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informed user
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a person knowledgeable about information systems and information technology
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inter organizational information systems (IOSs)
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information systems that connect two or more organizations
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knowledge
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data and/or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current problem or activity
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rights approach
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bests protects and respects moral rights
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utilitarian approach
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most good or does the least amount of harm
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common good approach
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best approach for the whole community
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fairness approach
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treat all humans equally
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knowledge workers
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professional employees, such as financial and marketing analysts, engineers, lawyers and accountants, who are experts in a particle subject area and create information and knowledge, which they integrate into the business.
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network
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a connecting system (wireling or wireless) that permits different computers to share resources
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office automation systems (OASs)
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typical support clerical staff, lower and middler managers, and knowledge workers to develop documents, schedule resources, and communicate
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procedures
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the set of instructions about how to combine the components of information technology in order to process information and generate the desired output
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software
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a program or collection of programs that enable the hardware to process data
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supply chain
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the flow of materials, information, money, and services from suppliers of raw materials through factories and warehouses to the end customers
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transaction processing system (TPS)
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supports the monitoring, collection, and processing of data from the organizations’ basic business transactions, each of which generates data.
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Sales and marketing professionals use IT for which of the following functions?
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Promotion analysis & Site analysis
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Expert systems:
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Apply reasoning, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain.
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Increased productivity,Increased number of employees reporting to a single manager, & Decreased time frames for making decisions
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IT changes a middle manager’s job in which of the following ways?
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Business environment pressures can come from which of the following?
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Political changes
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? IS have a strategic value to the organization ? IS are expensive to acquire, operate and maintain ? Computing resources are scattered throughout the organization ? End users share the responsibility for the IS with the IS department
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Managing Information Systems is a complex task. Why?
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• Managing systems development & systems project management • Managing computer operations, including the computer center • Staffing, training and developing IS skills • Providing technical services • Infrastructure planning, development and control
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Traditional functions of MIS
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• Initiating and designing specific strategic information systems • Incorporating the Internet and electronic commerce into the business • Managing system integration including the Internet, intranets and extranets • Educating the non-MIS managers about IT • Educating the MIS staff about the business • Partnering with business- unit executives • Managing outsourcing • Proactively using business and technical knowledge to seed innovative ideas about IT • Creating business alliances with business partners
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New Functions of the MIS department:
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Technology pressures such as information overload.
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Which of the following pressures do businesses today experience?
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Strategic Systems & Mass Customization
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Which of the following are organizational responses to various business pressures?
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increases; decreases
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According to Michael Porter, the Web ______ competition, which generally _________ a firm’s profitability.
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Procurement & Product and Technology Development
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According to Porter’s Value Chain Model, which of the following are considered support activities?
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Application or application programs:
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A computer program designed to support a specific task or business process
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True
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There are six (6) characteristics of effective Business-IT Alignment. True or False
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click stream data
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Data that comes from the Web is referred to as
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creating a data model
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The first step in creating a database should be:
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False
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The relational database model is based on the concept of one-dimensional tables. T or F
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False
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Data warehouses are smaller in scope than data marts. T or F
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instantly updated
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of data warehouse and data marts?
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Departmental Information Systems:
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? Functional Area IS (FAIS) (e.g. Accounting and Finance systems, Sales automation, Human resource information systems, etc.) ? Collection of application programs in a single department
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Entire organization:
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? ERP (coordinate and share data across multiple FAIS) ? TPS (Monitor, collect, store, and process data from the organization’s basic transactions that generate data; transaction data: A record of the activities of the business)
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Data
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raw & no context
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Information
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meaningful & organized; may or may not be used to solve a problem
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Knowledge
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information &/or data that have been processed to convey understanding; applied; can be exercised to solve a problem
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Business-IT Alignment
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Tight integration of the IT functions with the strategy, mission, and goals of the organization
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Organizations view IT as an engine of innovation Customers and customer service function are important Rotations among business and IT professionals Organizations provide clear goals to IT and other business functions IT employees understand how the company operates Vibrant and inclusive company culture
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Characteristics of good business-IT alignment:
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? Business manager and IT managers have different objectives ? They ignored each other expertise ? Lack of communication
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Only 16% of executives reported that they had adequate business-IT alignment. Why?
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Michael Porter’s competitive forces model:
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• Buyer power is high when buyers have many choices from whom to buy and low when buyers have few choices • The bargaining power of suppliers is high when buyers have few choices and low when buyers have many choices. • Threat of entry of new competitors is high when it is easy to enter a market and low when significant barriers to entry exist. • The threat of substitute products or services is high when there are many substitutes for an organization’s products or services and low where there are few substitutes.
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Digital channel
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lower costs of delivery
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Internet:
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– reduces barrier to entry – increases the bargaining power of buyers – lowers the power of suppliers or increases (if supplier locks-in a customer) – increases the threat of subsitutes (e.g. over the Internet we can convey information cheaply and efficiently)
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Cost leadership strategy:
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offering products and services and the lowest cost
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Differentiation strategy:
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offer different products and services from competitors
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Innovation strategy:
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introducing new products and services; adding new features, developing new ways to offer them
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Operational effectiveness strategy:
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improving business processes so firm operates better than competition
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Customer-orientation strategy:
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treating customers well
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Database:
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? A group of logically related files that stores data adn the associations among them ? Most popular language used to extract information from a database is SQL
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Database management system (DBMS):
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? A set of programs that provide users with tools to add, delete, access, modify, and analyze data stored in one location
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data
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___ provides information, creating knowledge that is used in decision making
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Challenges of data management:
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? new systems are developed ? the media used to store it can be problematic ? new sources of data are developed ? amount of data increases exponentially ? data are scattered throughout organizations
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Knowledge is information in action
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• Contextual,relevant,anduseful • Also called intellectual capital or intellectual assets
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Explicit knowledge
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• Objective, rational, technical knowledge that has been documented and can be distributed transformed into a process or a strategy •Examples:policies,proceduralguides,reports,products,strategies,goals,core competencies
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Tacit knowledge
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• Cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning •Highly personal,imprecise,unstructured and costly to transfer • Examples:experiences,insights,expertise,know-how,tradesecrets,understanding,skillsets, learning, and organizational culture
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Data model
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? A diagram that represents the entities in the database and their relationships
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Entity relationship diagrams (used in db design)
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? Show data entities and attributes and relationships among them ? Entity: A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained ? Attribute: A particular characteristic or quality of a particular entity ? Relationship: association between entities (types: One-to-one, One-to-many, Many-to-many)
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Client – server processing:
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? Server computers: provide computing services ? Client computers: end users access client computer to use services
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Peer-to-peer processing:
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? type of client-server processing in which each computer works as both a client and a server
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Swarming:
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process used by BitTorrent that eliminates file-sharing bottlenecks by having everyone share small pieces of a file at the same time
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Network:
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? A system that connects computers and other devices via communications media so that data and information can be transmitted among them
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Backbone:
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supports major traffic; high speed central network: LANs & WANs are connected to it
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Local Area Networks (LANs):
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? components: file server, client computers, network interface cards, DSL/cable
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? Cover large geographical areas ? Have large capacity ? Combine multiple communication channels ? Example: Internet
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Wide Area Networks (WANs):
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enterprise network:
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can comprise of interconnected LANS and WANS
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Protocol:
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Set of rules and procedures governing transmission across a network
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Ethernet:
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A common LAN protocol
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? A file transfer protocol that can send large files of information across sometimes unreliable networks with assurance that the data will arrive uncorrupted ? Manages the movement of packets between computers ? Use packet switching technology ? 4 layers model
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Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP):
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? Data are divided into small, fixed bundles of data ? Packets contain a sequence number ? Packets are routed through different paths ? Packets use TCP/IP to carry their data ? Packets contain destination addressing
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Packets:
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Packet switching technology:
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? Transmission technoloy that divides data into packets
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Dashboard:
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a BI application that provides rapid access to timely information and direct access to management reports
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Data mining:
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? Involves prediction of trends and behaviors; identifies patterns in a data set to forecast future behavior ? Explains why phenomenon is occurring and helps predict what will happen in the future ? Example: using archival sales data to forecast customers’ future purchases
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? Multidimensional; involves drilling down the data to get to greater detail ? Included in Ms Excel ? Multidimensional analysis provides a view of what is happening
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Online Analytical Processing:
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Reality mining:
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extraction of information from the usage of cell phones
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• Computer-based information systems that combine models and data in an attempt to analyze semi structured and some unstructured problems with extensive user involvement ? Adaptable to changing conditions ? Support all phases of the decision making process ? Utilize quantitative models ? Easy to use and construct
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Decision support systems:
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? Interpersonal (figurehead; leader) ? Informational (to monitor, to disseminate, to analyze) ? Decisional (to negotiate; to allocate resources; to handle disturbances)
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• Roles of managers:
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• Privacy (collecting, storing and disseminating information about individuals) • Accuracy (authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information that is collected and processed) • Property (ownership and & value of information) • Accessibility to information (who should have access to information and whether they should have to pay for this access)
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Ethical issus in IS:
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• Employers use URL filtering – software that blocks access to inappropriate websites • Employees have limited protection against surveillance at work; law generally support employers in this matter • More and more employers monitor employees’ Internet usage • Employers can read employees’ emails • Surveillance is legal
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Privacy at work:
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• Recognize the ethical issue • Get the facts • Evaluate Alternatives • Make a Choice & test it • Reflect on your Decision
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Ethical decision making:
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Profiling:
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• Using data to create a digitial dossier of an individual • Digital dossier – an electronic profile of an individual and his/her habits • Advances in IT makes it easier to profile individuals
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Information system vulnerability:
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the possibility that an information resource will be lost or damaged
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? Using social skills to trick or manipulate an employee to reveal confidential company infomation (e.g. passwords) ? Shoulder surfing ? Tailgating
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Social engineering techniques:
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• Converting an original message into a form that can only be read by the intended receiver ? Public key encryption (asymmetric encryption) ? Digital Certificate • Sending a message: Sender encrypts the message wth the receiver’s public key & the receiver decrypts the message using ther private key
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Encryption:
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Unintentional:
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human errors, social engineering (unintentional on the side of the employee)
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espionage or trespass, information extortion, sabotage or vandalism, theft of equipment or information, identity theft, compromises to intellectual property, software attacks, alien software, SCADA attacks, cyberterrorism or cyber warfare
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Deliberate threats:
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Software attack from outside the system:
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Worm in a program performs a malicious action when a file is opened Virus attaches to a host computer without the owner knowing it Phishing attack (officially looking e-mail attempts to extort personal info) Spear phishing attack (phishing attack at a specific target)
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Risk management:
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• Identify, control, and minimize the impact of threats • Three processes involved in risk management: ? Risk analysis Prioritize assets (probability x value) Compare cost of security breach vs. Cost of control ? Risk mitigation Organization takes concrete actions against risk Implement controls and develop recovery plan ? Controls evaluation
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business environment
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the combination of social, legal, economic, physical, and political factors in which businesses conduct their operations.
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business IT alignment
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the tight integration of the IT function with the strategy, mission, and goals of the organization
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business processes
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related activities that produce a product or a service of value to the organization, its business partners, and or its customers
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competitive advantage
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an advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed; leads to control of a market and to larger-than-average profits
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competitive forces model
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a business framework devised by Michael Porter that analyzes a competitiveness by recognizing five major forces that could endanger a company’s position
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digital divide
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the gap between those who have access to information and communications technology and those who do not
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e-business
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buying and selling of goods and services as well as servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and performing electronic transactions within and organization
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electronic commerce (EC or e-commerce)
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the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks, including the internet
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entry barrier
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product or service feature that customers expect from organizations in a certain industry; an organization trying to enter this market must provide this product or service at a minimum to be able to compete.
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globalization
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the integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by rapid advances in information technology
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make-to-order
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the strategy of producing customized products and services
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mass customization
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a production process in which items are produced in large quantities but are customized to fit the desires of each customer
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organizational/individual social responsibility
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efforts by organizations to solve various social problems
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primary activities
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business activities related to the production and distribution of the firm’s products and services, thus creating value
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strategic information systems (SISs)
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system that help and organization gain an competitive advantage by supporting its strategic goals and/or increasing performance and productivity.
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Support activities
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Business activities that do not add value directly to firm’s product or service under consideration but support the primary activities that do add value
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value chain model
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model that shows the primary activities that sequentially add value to the profit margin; also shows the support activities
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value system
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includes the producers, suppliers, distributors, and buyers all with their value chains
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bit
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a binary digit– that is 0 or 1
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byte
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a group of eight bits that represents a single character
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click stream data
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data collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users activities when they visit a website
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data mart
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a low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse that is designed for the end-user needs in a strategic business unit or a department
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data warehouse
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repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization
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master data
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a set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location, and so on, that spans an enterprises information systems.
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primary key
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the identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record
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query by example (QBE)
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database language that enables the user to fill out a grid to construct a sample or description of the data wanted
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secondary key
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an identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy
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affinity portal
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a web site that offers a single point of entry to an entire community of affiliated interest
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backbone networks
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high-speed central networks to which multiple smaller networks (such as LANs and smaller WANs) connect
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bandwith
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the transmission capacity of a network, stated in bits per second
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broadband
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a transmission speed ranging from approximately one megabit per second up to several terabits per second
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broadcast media
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wireless media
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cable media
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wireline media
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corporate portal
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a web site that provides a single point of access to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization
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domain name
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the name assigned to an internet site, consisting of multiple parts, separated by dots, which are translated from right to left.
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enterprise network
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an organizations network composed of interconnected multiple LANs and WANs
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Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
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the communications standard used to transfer pages across the WWW portion of the internet; defines how messages are formulated and transmitted.
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data mining
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the process of searching for valuable business information in a large database, data warehouse, and data mart
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decision support system (DSS)
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business intelligence systems that combine models and data in an attempt to solve semistructured and some unstructured problems with extensive user involvement
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geographic information system
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a computer-based systems for capturing, integrating, manipulating, and spilling data using digitized maps.
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online analytical processing (OLAP)
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a set o capabilities for “slicing and dicing” data using dimensions and measures associated with the data
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code of ethics
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a collection of principles that are intended to guide decision making by members of the organization
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digital dossier
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an electronic description of you and your habits
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information privacy
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the right to determine when, and to what extent, information about you can be gathered and/or communicated to others
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opt -in model
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a model of informed consent that prohibits and entity from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically authorizes it
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opt-out model
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a model of informed consent that permits an entity to collect personal information unless the individual specifically requests that the data not be collected
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access controls
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controls that restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources and are concerned with user identification
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alien software
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clandestine software that is installed on a computer through duplicitous methods.
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back door
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typically a password, known only to the attacker, that allows the attacker to access the system without having to go through any security procedures
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patent
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20 years
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copy right
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7 years
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SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
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large-scale, distributed, measurement and control systems used to monitor or to control chemical, physical, or transport processes.
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secure socket layer (SSL)
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an encryption standard used for secure transactions such as credit card purchases and online banking.
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social engineering
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getting around security systems by tricking computer users side and company into revealing sensitive information or gaining unauthorized access privileges
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hot site
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a fully configured computer facility, with all information resources and services, communications links, and physical plant operations, that duplicates a company’s computing resources and provide near real-time recovery of IT operations.
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trade secrets
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intellectual work, such as business plan, that is a company secret and is not based on public information
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tunneling
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a process that encrypts each data packet to be sent and places each encrypted packet inside another packet
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virtual private network (VPN)
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a private network hat uses a public network (usually the internet) to securely connect users by using encryption
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warm site
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a site that provides many of the same services and options of a hot site but does not include the company’s application
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whitelisting
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a process in which a company identifies acceptable software and permits it to run, and either prevents anything else from running or lets new software run in a quarantined environment until the company can verify its validity.
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worm
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destructive computer code that replicates itself without requiring another program to provide a safe environment for replication

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