Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meiosis Study Guide

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Cytokinesis
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Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
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Tetrad
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structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
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Cleavage furrow
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A shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
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Haploid
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An organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.
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Diploid
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2 sets of chromosomes. 2n
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Centromere
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Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
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Centriole
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Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
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Mitosis
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Cell’s division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.
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Meiosis
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A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
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Sister chromatids
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Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S phase of interphase.
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Homologous chromosome
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Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.
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Chromatin
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DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes
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Spindle Fibers
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help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of microtubules
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Gametes
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A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
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crossing over
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Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
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Telophase
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After the chromosome separates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
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Prophase
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First phase of mitosis in which duplicated chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle fibers begin to form
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Metaphase
Metaphase
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Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at plate. Fully formed spindle attach to the sister chromatids from opposite poles
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Anaphase
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“Third phase of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes have arrived at each of the two poles of the cell”
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Prophase II
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The first phase of meiosis II. is identical to a mitotic phase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
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Somatic cells
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Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors.
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synapsis
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the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
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Zygote
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Diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.
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Stages of Mitosis
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Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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Stages of Meiosis
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Interphase, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, teleophase I, cytokinesis, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, cytokinesis
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the cell cycle
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A series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
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metaphase II
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The second phase of meiosis II. is identical to mitotic, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
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Anaphase II
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Sister chromatids separate
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Telophase II
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Nuclear membranes start to form around the chromosomes AGAIN

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