Cards for Reading Class

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First order realities
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physically observable qualities of a thing or situation. pg109 First-order realities are physically observable qualities of a thing or situation. Example: Her husband hugged her very tightly.
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second-order realities
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to attach meaning to first-order reality. pg109 By contrast, second-order realities involve our attaching meaning to first-order things or situations. Example: Her husband hugged her tightly. Shared second-order reality–she felt loved.
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selection
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the manner of how we respond to a situation or ignore it. pg 110. Because we’re exposed to more input than we can possibly manage, the first step in perception is the selection of which data we will attend to. Example: I did not remember the first speaker but the second one was quite amusing while he was speaking.
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organization
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The way we arrange information from the environment. pg111. After selection information from the environment, we must arrange it in some meaningful way to make sense of the world. We call this stage organization. Example: She organized her thoughts of how to speak appropriately to the crowd.
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punctuation
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The determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions. pg111. Communication theorists have used the term punctuation to describe the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions. Example: The wife accuses the husband of withdrawing and the husband accuses the wife of being too demanding. They then start a cycle of demand/withdrawal argument.
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Interpretation
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Attaching meaning to sense data. pg112. Interpretation–attaching meaning to sense data–plays a role in virtually every interpersonal act. Example: Should you take an invitation to \”drop by any time\” literally or not?
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negotiation
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How we see others through communication perception. pg113. The process by which communicators influence each others perceptions through communication. Example: An employee sees herself and a hard worker while the manager see her an employee that lacks interest in her job.
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Physiological Influences
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How physical environment and differing perspectives cause us to respond. pg115. Heading . The Senses, Age, Health and Fatigue, Biological Cycles, Hunger, Neurobehavioral Challenges. Example: Hearing, touch, are you sick, if you are a morning person or not, have you eaten or not, do you have a neurological disorder.
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standpoint theory
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How a persons position in society shapes their viewpoint of society or an individual. pg118. Social scientists have developed standpoint theory to describe how a person’s position in a society shapes her or his view of society in general and of specific individuals. Example: The owner of the business never ate lunch with his employees except for the elite office officials.
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attribution
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The process of attaching meaning to behavior. pg 123. Social scientists use the term attribution to describe the process of attaching meaning to behavior. Example: Through snap decisions and first impressions her mother was very suspicious of her daughters new friend.

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