Candide Study Guide

Satire
a story that uses laughter and abusive language in an attempt to cure and punish wrong-doing, if it does not achieve it is content with making jokes at foolishness and to expose evil
Folly
lack of good sense
vier
an evil practice, moral failing, wicked conduct
Invective
insulting/abusive
Target of Satire
can be anything, usually a specific person, low, or government
Static Character
a character that does not experience changes during the story
Dynamic Character
a character that experiences changes throughout the story
Enlightenment
“Age of reason” emphasized reason and individuality
Cultivate our Garden
1) we must grow and strengthen our garden of life
2) we need to work hard to make our life the best
Voltaire’s attitude toward Religion
central target of Voltaire’s mockery, religion is corrupt
Voltaire’s attitude toward humanity
part of the natural continuum with animals, believed that if humans replace their superstition with knowledge the world would be better
Voltaire’s attitude toward philosophy
its not good to explain deaths
Voltaire’s attitude toward philosophical optimism
whole point of Candide, every time something bad would happen, a good would be made out of it
Lisbon earthquake
it proved Voltaire thinking, examined problem of evil, Gods relationship was not for worlds best
How is it didactic
it is didactic because many philosophies are brought ot the table to freak the readers
Optimism in Candide
everything is made to serve an end, cause and effect will justify every instance of evil in terms of the eventual
Free will in Candide
key destination between man/animals, men determine their own fate, cultivate our garden
Evil in Candide
phenomenon of evil can be rationalistic, evil isnt necessary
Pity in Candide
we cant have excuses of pity
Pleasure vs. Criticism
only possible pleasure comes from criticizing things, intended to bring the spectator pleasure
Purpose of Satire
1) make people laugh and then make them think
2) Funny but maybe we shouldn’t be laughing
3) To force change for the better
Pangloss
“best of all possible worlds” there cant be an effect without cause
Martin
Cynical Scholar, pessimist, cant see the world as it is
Cocambo
very practical, opposes pangloss and martin
Old Women
extremely wise from long difficult experiences in life
Philosophical Optimism
We live in the best possible world, God created a physical universe that applies the laws of physics, everything that takes place occurs for good
Complacency
Self Satisfaction
Providence
protective of God or of nature as a spiritual power
Ancients
favored old ideas, truth is universal, classical past
Moderns
favored change, believed ides of truth and continue to evolve, looked to change societies thinking on woman, individualism, ancients weren’t perfect.
Theodicy
vindication of divine goodness and providence in view of the existence of evil
Problem of evil
it is the argument that an all-powerful, all knowing, and all good God would not allow any evil
Deism
belief in the existence of a supreme being, God has created the world, but in apart from it
Argument from design
Gods existence is demonstrable from the evidence of design in the universe
Bildungsroman
a novel of formation, education through experience, main character grows from childhood to maturity and to eventually embrace or reject his cultures beliefs
Erziehungsroman
a novel of education and training, the education is formal or informal
Didatic
intended to instruct, inclined to moralize, morally instructive