Business Law Chapter 4: The Court System

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Litigate
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To take disputes to court.
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Mediator
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An independent third party that develops a solution to both sides of a dispute.
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Arbitrator
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Someone who holds an informal hearing to determine what happened.
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Court
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A governmental forum that administers justice under the law.
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Trial Court
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The first court to hear a dispute.
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Original Jurisdiction
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Power to hear the case in full for the first time.
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Appellate Courts
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Reviews decisions of lower courts solely for the purpose for errors of law, not errors of fact, no witnesses/facts are presented.
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Transcripts
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A verbatim record of what went on during trial.
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Appellate Briefs
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Written arguments on the issue of law.
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General Jurisdiction
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Court has power to hear any kind of case.
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Special Jurisdiction
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A court that hears only one type of case.
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Writ of Certiorari
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An order that compels the state court to turn over the record of the case for Supreme Court review.
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Court of Record
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An exact account of what goes on at trial.
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Justice
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The title given to judges who sit on the state supreme court and federal supreme court.
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Associate Circuit Courts
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Hear minor criminal cases like traffic offenses.
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Municipal Courts
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Courts that administer city ordinances.
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Small Claims Courts
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Courts that handle disputes in small amounts.
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Juveniles
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younger members of society.
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Probate Courts
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Courts that administer wills and estates.
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What age can a juvenile be charged as an adult in the state in Pennsylvania?
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Age 14
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What three things does a court do?
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A court may award damages in civil cases, impose punishment in criminal cases, or grant other appropriate relief.
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What is the difference between mediation and arbitration?
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Meditation is when an independent third party develops a solution acceptable to both sides of a party. Arbitration is someone who holds an informal hearing to decide what happened, their decision is binding to both parties.
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What are the three levels of federal courts with general jurisdiction?
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Federal District Courts, Federal Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court.
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What are three reasons why appeals are taken?
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Wronged in court, wrong laws were used, rights were violated.
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Why do federal courts handle cases involving matters between citizens of different states with a value of more that $75,000?
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Because these parties are said to have a diversity of citizenship.

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