BTHS Geography Chapter 4


The total of knowledge, attitudes, and Behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group. Culture acts as a bluebrint for how a group of people should behave if they want to fit in with the group.

Culture involves the following:

food & shelter, religion, relationships, language, education, security, political & social organization, and creative expression

A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture.
Ethnic Group
Specific group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage.
Taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need.
the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior.
Cultural Hearth

a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures.


Early river civilizations were cultural hearths.

When a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation – such as wearing jeans instead of traditional garments

Reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes.


Consider the speech pattern differences between England and the American south.

A belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe.  Religions establish beliefs and values that define how people worship the divine being or divine forces and how they behave toward each other.

Belief in one god


From the Greek:

Mono – one

Theo – God


Belief in many gods


From the Greek

Poly = many

Theo = God

Belief in divine forces in nature



Oldest of SW Asian religions – Year 5770


Religious Center:  Jerusalem

Faith & Culture intertwined

Holy book:  Torah

Judaism, Christianity and Islam are sometimes referred to as the “Abrahamic religions” because of the progenitor role Abraham plays in their holy books


Oldest of SW Asian religions – Year 5770


Based on teachings of Jesus Christ

“Holy Cities” Jerusalem, Rome, Constantinople

Holy book:  Bible

Judaism, Christianity and Islam are sometimes referred to as the “Abrahamic religions” because of the progenitor role Abraham plays in their holy books

Largest number of followers 2 Billion


Oldest of SW Asian religions – Year 5770


Religious Center:  Mecca

Faith & Culture intertwined

Holy book:  Qur’an

Founded: 613 AD

Judaism, Christianity and Islam are sometimes referred to as the “Abrahamic religions” because of the progenitor role Abraham plays in their holy


Fastest growing religion.

Sunni ; Shiite factions


Approx 5,000 years old

Polytheistic – divine spirit is Brahman

Caste system / Reincarnation

Concentrated in India


563 BC

Founder: Siddhartha Gautama –

the Buddah / Enlightened one

Peaceful religion

Rejects Caste System

Ultimate enlightenment is Nirvana

Number of live births per thousand population
Fertility rate
Average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
Mortality rate
number of deaths per thousand people
Infant Mortality Rate
number of deaths among infants under age one per thousand live births.

Rate of Natural Increase /

Population Growth rate

Subtract the mortality rate from the birthrate

Alternately stated:


Rate of natural increase =

Birthrate – Mortality rate

Population Pyramid
A graphic representation that shows sex and age distribution of a population
Push / Pull Factors

Push factors are those that cause people to leave their homeland and migrate to another region.



Pull factors draw or attract peopole to another location.

Population Density
Average number of people that live in a measurable area, such as a square mile.
Carrying Capacity
Number of organisms (people) a piece of land can support.

State (aka Country)


an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs

a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity


It is possible for a nation not to have a territory, called a stateless nation, such as the Palestinians, Kurds, and Basques.



Nation State
When a nation and a state occupy the same territory, that territory is called a nation-state.

Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives.


the free and equal right of every person to participate in a system of government, often practiced by electing representatives of the people by the majority of the people


A form of government with a non-hereditary leader.


For Plato, this would consist of an aristocracy run by a class of legislators groomed for leadership by a state education system, who would manage the government for the good of the people – not for personal gain.


A ruling family, headed by a king or queen that hold political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies


Examples:United Kingdom (England) shared

Saudi Arabia (not shared)


An individual or group that holds complete political power.


Examples: North Korea

Hitler, Stalin

Government in which nearly all political power, ;the economic system and the means of productionand distribution are held by the government in the name of all the people

A country or area, surrounded by other land and with no direct outlet to the sea.;


Bolivia is an example.

Kansas is also landlocked but enjoys the benefit of being within the United States.

Metropolitan Area
Metropolitan Area = City + Suburbs

The trend to liv in the cities vs. a rural area.


Since the 1920s, more Americans have lived in cities than in the country.


Prior to 1920, more people lived on farms (rural areas) than in the cities.

Production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
Traditional Economy
Goods ; Services are traded without exchanging money.; Also called barter.
Command Economy
Production of goods and services is determined by a central government which usually owns the means of production.; Production does not necessarily reflect the consumer demand.; AKA Planned economy.
Market Economy
Productionof goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers.; Also called a demand economy or capitalism.
Mixed Economy
A combination of command and market economies provides goods and services so that all people will benefit.
Primary Activities
Gathering raw materials to use in the making of a final product.; (Timber, Coal, etc.)
Secondary Activities
Involve adding value to materials… manufacturing
Tertiary Activities

Involve providing business or professional services.


Teachers, doctors, sales

Quaternary Activities
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