Brinkley APUSH chapter 16

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Chinese Immigration
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The Gold Rush led to a massive Chinese immigration into California (also immigrated to Hawaii and more). At first they were welcomed as hard workers, but then they were driven out of the mining industry by discriminatory laws.
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Transcontinental Railroad Labor
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Railroad labor replaced mining as the chief employment for Chinese, who worked for less money than whites would.
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Chinatowns
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Chinese communities that revolved around organization-usually formed by people from the same clam or community in China-that functioned as something like benevolent societies and filled many of the roles that political machines often served in immigrant communities in eastern cities.
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Tongs
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Secret Chinese societies and violent criminal organizations involved in the opium trade and prostitution.
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Anti-Coolie Clubs
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Organizations that aimed to prevent immigration of people of East Asian origin, as well as banning Chinese labor/boycotting goods made with Chinese labor.
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Workingmen’s Party of California
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(1878) This party was created by Denis Kearney who was an Irish immigrant who opposed Chinese immigration. This party would fail due to Kearney’s inability to lead a true revolution, but it did convince Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of the immigrants as a threat. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.
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Homestead Act
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Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25. Governments later passed supplement acts to give the homsteaders more land
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Timber Culture Act
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1873, act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land
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Desert Act
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1877, the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the soil within three years
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Comstock Lode
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First discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
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Frederick Jackson Turner/Turner Thesis
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1861-1932, American historian; he developed the idea that the existence of the frontier made the United States distinctive.
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Helen Hunt Jackson
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United States writer of romantic novels about the disappearing utopia of the Western Frontier
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Concentration Policy
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Policy that gave each tribe its own reservation; this made the tribes easier to control, because each tribe was separate from the others.
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Indian Peace Commission
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established in 1867 by Congress, it recommended a new and presumably permanent Indian policy. The commission recommended that the government move all the Plains tribes into two large reservations, one in Oklahoma, and the other in the Dakotas
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Bureau of Indian Affairs
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A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans, but it didn’t really accomplish anything.
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Decimation of the Buffalo
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Whites killed all of the buffalo that Indians were very dependent on. Indians felt that they had to fight to preserve their livelihood.
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Eastern Sioux Uprising (Little Crow)
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Little Crow of the eastern Sioux in Minnesota led a rebellion and killed more than 700 whites before being overpowered. 38 Indians were hanged and the tribe was exiled to the Dakotas
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Sand Creek Massacre (Black Kettle)
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Event at which Colonel John Chivington and his troops attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory; killed over 150 inhabitants, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.
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Bozeman Trail (Red Cloud)
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In attempts to block the construction of this road to Montana, the Sioux (under Chief Red Cloud) massacred and mutilated 82 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman’s command.
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Little Bighorn
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(1876) Battle during which the Sioux Tribe defeated the U.S. Army forces led by Colonel George A. Custer.
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Crazy Horse
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Sioux chief who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn.
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Sitting Bull
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Sioux chief who defeated and killed George Custer and his troops at Little Bighorn.
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Flight of the Nez Percé (Chief Joseph)
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A peaceful tribe that were to move to a reservation; led by Chief Joseph, they tried to flee from Canada but were captured when they were almost there and taken to a reservation.
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Geronimo (Apache)
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Leader of Apaches, who refused to bow to white pressure to assimilate. They fought for a while, but eventually had to surrender.
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Ghost Dance
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A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
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Wounded Knee Massacre
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1890, massacre in which U.S soldiers killed as many as 300 unarmed Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
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Dawes Severalty Act
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1887, sought to turn Indians into landowners and farmers; emphasized the treatment of Indians as individuals rather than as tribal members, and called for the distribution of 160 acres of reservation land for farming.
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Burke Act
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Rule that a “civilized” Native American could be declared a citizen and was entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of citizenship after a 25 year waiting period. The secretary of the interior was also given the right to judge the competence of the Native Americans.
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Joseph Glidden and I. L. Ellwood
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Developed and marketed barbed wire
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Commercial farming
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Raising crops and livestock for sale in markets
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Farmers’ grievances
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Upset over unjust railroad transportation/shipping rates, high interest charges, and inadequate currency.

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