BJU US HISTORY 4th Edition Chapter 21 Terms

Flashcard maker : Viola Marenco
Great Depression
The period of widespread pocerty and despair during the 1930s.
Public works
Government-financed construction of public facilities.
Work relief
The provision of jobs to those who had none during the depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Hoover’s most important interventionist measure. The organization received $500 million to loan to businesses (mainly banks). It helped stabilize the banking industry and other economic concerns temporarily, but it did not inspire the intended expansion of credit and return of confidence.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
Pushed tariffs on foreign industrial and agricultural prices to their highest level in history.
Bonus Army
Large group of unemployed WWI vets who made their way to Washington, D.C. and asked for an early payment of the bonus promised them in the Adjusted Compensation Act. When they did not get want they want and the president did not deal with them, they set up and lived in a shantytown on the edge of the capital.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt’s cousin. 1932 Democratic presidential nominee.
New Deal
Term used in Roosevelt’s acceptance speech and later attributed with subsequent efforts to end the Depression.
Banking Crisis
A terrible banking crisis took place leading up to Roosevelt’s inauguration despite Hoover’s efforts at the end of his term. The banking system was about to collapse and depositors were rushing to withdraw their money.
Bank holiday
One of FDR’s two early actions taken soon after having been inaugurated. It was a four day closing of all banks to calm the public’s fears of a bank collapse.
Brain Trust
A group of advisers recruited by Roosevelt to help him make plans to combat the Depression.
Fireside chats
A frequent practice of Roosevelt’s which involved going on the radio and talking to keep the nation informed, inspired, and in support of him.
Civilian Conservation Corps
An organization that helped provide work relief by giving young, unmarried men jobs in reforestation and soil conservation.
Public Works Afministration
During its six years of existence, it built schools, courthouses, bridges, and other public facilities. It also built ships and planes for the military.
Works Progress Administration
Created as an attempt to eliminate relief doles.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Established a method of subsidizing farm products and aides debt-ridden farmers.
National Industrial Recovery Act
Tried to organize guidelines for industries to increase employment, maintain wages, and reduce unwanted competition.
National Recovery Administration
Agency designed to carry out the NIRA’s activities. It had a blue eagle symbol.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Agency devised to insure the bank deposits of millions of Americans against loss.
Tennessee Valley Authority
Built dams along the Tennessee River that would provide navigation, flood control, and cheap electricity.
Social Security Act
Instituted old-age pensions and unemployment insurance for American workers.
Huey Long
Plain-spoken, loud-mouthed, former governor of Louisiana. A political left who advocated bolder government action. Proposed his \”Share Our Wealth\” scheme which involved taxation of the rich and redistribution to the poor.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Proposed that the government pay a pension of $200 a month to every citizen over 60 so long as they held no job and spent every cent they were given. This was to be financed by a 2% national sales tax.
Father Charles Coughlin
Roman Catholic priest from Royal Oak, Mi. Believed that silver needed to replace gold and be coined to cause inflation and proposed that capitalism be replaced by his system of \”social justice.\”
Court-packing plan
Plan devised by FDR to add a justice to the Court for every justice over seventy who did not retire to a maximum of six.
Alf Landon
Republican 1936 presidential election candidate.
John L. Lewis
President of the United Mine Workers. Organized the CIO to accommodate unskilled industrial workers not taken care of by other unions that only helped skilled craftsmen.
Congress of Industrial Organization
Organized to help in satisfied unskilled laborers.
Bread lines
Lines that formed on city streets as the desperate sought food from soup kitchens.
Dust bowl
Formed from prairie winds picking up dust and blowing it across the land. Hid Oklahoma the hardest.
New York World’s Fair
1939. Was open for two years. Attracted 45 million visitors to its 1500 visits.
George Sutherland
One of the \”Four Horseman of Reaction\” on the Supreme Court.
Melvin Purvis
FBI agent who stopped Public Enemy No. 1.
Douglas MacArthur
Led US troops in clearing the Bonus Army from Washington.
Huey Long
The Louisiana \”Kingfish\” who opposed FDR.
Alf Landon
Republican opponent of FDR in the 1936 election.
Amelia Earhart
Disappeared during an attempted flight across the Pacific Ocean.
John Dillinger
FBI’s Public Enemy No. 1
Charles Coughlin
Catholic priest who opposed FDR and proposed \”social justice.\”
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Hoover’s attempt to loan money to businesses, especially banks, to stabilize the banking industry.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Put men to work in reforestation and soil-saving projects.
Public Works Association (PWA)
Provided work relief to build schools, courthouses, bridges, and other public structures.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Subsidized farm products and aided debt-ridden farmers in danger of foreclosure.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Provides work relief of various sorts, including jobs for writers and artists.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Built dams for navigation, flood control, and electricity production.
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
FDR’s attempt to control practically all industries in the United States.

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