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BioNG 2220 – Neurochemistry

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Glutamate
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Excitatory NT
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Aspartate
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Excitatory NT
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AMPA
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Excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor
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Kainake
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Excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor
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NMDA
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Excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor *Blocked by Mg ion *needs 2 glutamate to bind
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GABA
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Inhibitory ionotropic glutamate receptor
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mGluR
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Modulatory glutamate receptor
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excitotoxicity
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kills cells, strokes, electrocution, drowning
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GABA(a)
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Inhibitory NT *brain
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GABA(b)
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Modulatory NT *brain
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Glycine
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Inhibitory NT *spinal cord
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GABA receptor
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Strongly activated by drugs and alcohol Blocked by valium, librium
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Picrotoxin
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Blocks GABA receptor – convulsions
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Strychnine
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Blocks glycine receptor
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Acetylcholine
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NMJ, mostly modulatory in brain
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Nicotinic ACh Receptor (nAChR)
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ACh receptor that nicotine can bind to to increase the release of ACh
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Catelcholmines
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Modulators for mood and reward
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Dopamine
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NT in reward, drug addiction, motor coordination *Drugs activate mesolimbic and mesocorticolimbic pathways *controls nigrostriatal pathway – motor coordination, Parkinson’s
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Norepiephrine
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alertness, vigilence, depression (SNRIs) modulatory – decreases resting K+ channels
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Serotonin
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pain, depression (SSRIs)
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Peptides
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a large family of neuromodulatory compounds in the brain