BIOLOGY

The presence of which protein is required in order for chromatin to compact correctly within the nucleus?
Histone
What structure is formed by two sister chromatids being held together by a centromere?
Chromosome
What is the structure that holds together the two sister chromatids that form a chromosome?
Centromere
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
During mitosis
The mitotic spindle is composed of ______________ and grows from the _______________ toward the center of the cell
microtubules; centrosome
Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measure of DNA levels ranged from three to six picograms per nucleus. One nucleus had five picograms of DNA. What stage of the cell cycle was the nucleus in?
S
Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell undergoes mitosis and not cytokinesis, this would result in
A cell with two or more nuclei
This is NOT a correct association
Interphase-shortest stage of the cell cycle
Susan was examining a cell under the microscope and noticed the formation of a cell plate in the midline of the cell and the formation of nuclei at opposite poles of the cell. The cell under examination was most likely a
Plant cell undergoing cytokinesis
Ben was looking at onion root tip cells under the microscope in Biology class. He saw one cell that had two nuclei within it. What stage of the cell cycle was this cell in?
Telophase/cytokinesis
This is correctly matched
S phase – DNA replication
The spindle serves two rolls in mitotic cell division. These are
To separate the sister chromatids and to elongate the cell
A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA nucleus. Those cells would have _____ picograms at the end of the S phase and _____ picograms at the end of G2
16;16
These occur during mitosis
The coiling of chromosomes, the division of centromeres, the formation of a spindle, and the degradation of the nuclear envelope
All of the following occur during the latter stages of mitotic prophase
The coiling of chromosomes, the division of centromeres, the formation of a spindle, and the degradation of the nuclear envelope
How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare to their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?
The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA
This represents the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
While Jeff was looking under the microscope at cells in different stages of mitosis he commented on the fact that many cells were in the same stage. If you were looking under the compound light microscope at an onion root tip, what stage would the majority of the cells be in the cell cycle?
Interphase
Cyclins function by
Combining with kinases
Rebecca found out that she has a mass of dividing cells called a tumor in her ovaries. She has had tests and is returning to the doctor. What would the best results the doctor could tell her be?
It is a benign tumor
Angiogenesis contributes to carcinogenesis because
It causes blood vessels to grow into the tumor
Which cancer therapy can lead to side effects such as nausea and hair loss?
Chemotherapy
Susan went to an oncologist because some cancerous cells had been detected within her breast tissue. Which of the following is NOT a warning signal for cancer?
Some cells were found going through the cell cycle
Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish. If cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing until they have filled the empty space. What does this experiment show?
When cells come into contact with other cells, they stop growing, the controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off, cell division can be regulated by factors outside of the cell, and cells continue to grow as long as there is adequate space
These are not characteristics of cancer cells
Exhibit contact inhibition and cells which function normally for tissue they are in
These are characteristics of cancer cells
Stimulate the growth of blood vessels, travel through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, produced by a mutation of a proto-oncogene, and have abnormal chromosomes
A tumor suppressor gene undergoes a mutation that causes it to lose its normal function. What would be the most likely result of this mutation?
The cell no longer responds to signals that cause it to stop dividing or undergo apoptosis
These are a type of internal signal molecule used in controlling the cell cycle
Kinases
If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicines, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle fibers, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?
Metaphase
Inheritance of mutant forms of some genes may lead to a predisposition to develop cancer. Which gene has not been linked to hereditary forms of cancer?
ras
Inheritance of mutant forms of some genes may lead to a predisposition to develop cancer. Which genes have been linked to hereditary forms of cancer?
BRCA-1, RB, RET, and DScam
A positive genetic test for telomerase indicates that
A cell is probably cancerous
Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their
Growth rate
Many growth factors are classified as this
Proto-oncogenes
Cancer occurs when
The regulation of the cell cycle is lost and uncontrolled cell division occurs
Apoptosis occurs when
A damaged cell is programmed to fragment and then is phagocytized
Some of the drugs used in chemotherapy work by
Preventing spindle formation
If a cell stops at the G1 checkpoint, this is most likely due to what problem?
There is DNA damage
Rick had a high incidence of cancer in his family. These are preventative measures to avoid cancer.
Increase consumption of foods rich in vitamin A and C, avoid salt-cured, pickled, or smoked foods, increase consumption of vegetables from the cabbage family, and avoid cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and sunbathing

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