Biology – Unit 2 Test -Study Guide

Density
Mass of an object divided by its volume
Polarity
Water molecule has a slightly negative charge near its oxygen atom and a slightly positive charge near each hydrogen atom.
Solvent
A liquid in which substances are dissolved
Solute
Substance that is being dissolved
Solution
Solvent and solute mixed together
Cohesion
Similar molecules form weak bonds and stick together
Properties of water
• Water molecules expand upon freezing
• Water displays cohesive behavior
• Water is a versatile solvent
• Water has the ability to moderate temperature
Organic
Carbon-based
Inorganic
Not carbon-based
Hydrocarbons
Composed of only carbon and hydrogen
Functional Group
Interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
Hydrophilic
Attracted to water {Ex.
Hydrophobic
Repels water {Ex. Fats and Oils}
Macromolecules
When smaller compounds are joined together by chemical bonds ; made up of monomers
Polymers
Made up of monomers
Primary energy source of most organisms
Carbohydrates
Are carbohydrates hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Hydrophilic
Polysaccharide
means “sugar”
Monosaccharide
Carbohydrate made up of only one simple sugar molecules
How is a disaccharide formed?
Two monosaccharide molecules bond together
What does chains of monosaccharides form?
Polysaccharides
Cellulose
Gives structural support to plant cells
Foods containing only or mostly carbohydrates provide quick
“energy”
The main function of carbohydrates (Fatty Acids)
Store energy for later use
Two main functions of Lipids
~ Used for long-term energy storage
~ Waterproof the organism
Saturated Fat
Bad Fat
Unsaturated Fat
Good Fat
Steroid
Four rings of carbon atoms
Function of Steriods
Act as hormones estrogen and testosterone)
Why are steroids classified as lipids?
They are hydrophilic
Best known steriod
Cholesterol
How many types of amino acids are there?
20
How many types of sugars are there?
10
How many types of nucleotides are there?
5
How many types of fatty acids are there?
10
What’s another name for carbohydrates?
Sugar
What’s another name for proteins?
Amino Acid
What’s another name for nucleic acids?
Nucleotide
What’s another name for lipids?
Fatty Acids
Functions of a protein
∙Forms hair and fur
∙ Makes up muscles
∙ Provides long-term nutrient storage
∙ Circulates blood
∙ Defends body from harmful microorganisms
Enzyme
Controls the rate of chemical reactions in the body
Side Group “R-Group”
Responsible for the certain chemical properties of each amino acid
Polypeptide
Cells create proteins by linking amino acids together in a chain
Denaturation
Protein losing its shape and function due to a change in temperature or pH
Amino Acid → Polypeptide → Protein
Amino Acid → Polypeptide → Protein
Genetic Information
Info passed from one generation of cells to the next
Nucleotides
Form nucleic acids
Two most important nucleic acids
∙ DNA
∙ RNA
Where is genetic information stored?
In nucleic acids
Reactants
What you start with
Products
What you end with
Photosynthesis
Plants use carbon dioxide an water to make food (glucose)
Cellular Respiration
Breaks down sugar to release energy
Catalyst
Speeds the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed
Most catalyst for biochemical reactions are
Enzymes
Activation Energy
Minimum amount of energy needed for colliding molecules to react
What does enzymes do?
Speed up reactions by reducing the amount of energy that is needed
Two factors that affect enzymes
∙ Temperature
∙ pH
pH Scale
pH Scale
Cellular Respiration Model
Cellular Respiration Model
What makes water molecules polar?
Slightly negative oxygen end of one molecule attracts the slightly positive hydrogen ends of adjacent water molecules and they attract
Aqueous Solution
Water is the solvent
What makes the plant favorable to live on?
∙ Water ; There is an abundance of water
∙ Location ; Were not too close to the sun yet not too far, were right in the middle
Is water organic or Inorganic?
Inorganic !!
Carbohydrates include :
∙ Polysaccharide
∙ Monosaccharide
∙ Glycogen
Hydrophilic dissolves in water
Hydrophilic dissolves in water
he 20 amino acids vary only in their
Side groups
Enzymes act upon
Catalyst
Why would you consume a big bowl of pasta the night before a big race?
The carbohydrates in the pasta store energy for later
How are glucose, sucrose, and starch related?
They are all polysaccharides (sugar)
Polypeptides make up
Proteins
Carbohydrate flow chart