Biology Section 3-1 Review: Carbon Compounds

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Organic Compound
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Covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides.
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Functional Group
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Portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds.
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Alcohol
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Organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms.
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Monomer
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Simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer.
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Polymer
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Larger molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units.
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Organic compounds contain
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a. carbon and usually other elements.
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The number of covalent bonds a carbon atom can form with other atoms is
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c. 4.
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A covalent bond formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons is called a
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b. double bond.
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The breakdown of a polymer involves
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a. hydrolysis.
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ATP releases energy when
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c. a phosphate group is added to it.
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Give an example of how a functional group can affect the properties of an organic compound.
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One functional group important to living things, the hydroxyl group, -OH, can make the molecule it is attached to polar.
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Arrange the following in order of size, from smallest to largest: polymer, monomer, carbon atom, macromolecule
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Carbon atom, Monomer, Polymer, Macromolecule
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Explain how a water molecule is produced when glucose and fructose undergo a condensation reaction.
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It is produced when one water molecule is produced each time two monomers form a covalent bond.
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What are the products of the hydrolysis of ATP? What else is released during this reaction?
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The products of the hydrolysis are the ATP. Energy is released.
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How would the variety of organic compounds be different if carbon had seven electrons in its outermost energy level instead of four?
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It would only need one more electron in its outermost energy level.
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What are the reactants and products of the forward (left-to-right) reaction?
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Glucose and Fructose are the reactants. Sucrose and Water are the products.
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Is the forward reaction a condensation reaction or hydrolysis?
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Condensation reaction
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What are the reactants and products of the reverse (right-to-left) reaction?
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Sucrose and water are the reactants. Glucose and Fructose are the products.
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Is the reverse reaction a condensation reaction or hydrolysis?
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Hydrolysis

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