Biology Module 3 Study Guide

Pseudopod
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food

Nucleus
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell’s main DNA

Vacuole
A membrane-bounded “sac” within a cell

Ectoplasm
The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells

Endoplasm
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells

Flagellate
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum

Pellicle
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane

Chloroplast
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis

Chlorophyll
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis

Eyespot
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa

Symbiosis
a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits

Mutualism
a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association

Commensalism
a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited

Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed

Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion

Spore
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating

Plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water

Zooplankton
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa

Phytoplankton
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae

Thallus
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems

Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms

Holdfast
A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself

Sessile colony
a colony that uses hold fasts to anchor itself to an object

Identify: cell is a green transparent blob and has pseudopods
subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Sarcodina

Identify: cell is oval, transparent green and has a flagella
subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Mastigophora

Identify: cells are red squiggles on a gray background
Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Sporozoa

Identify: cell is light blue and has cilia
Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Ciliophora

Identify: cells are hard and green and look like 4-leafed clover
Subkingdom Algae,
phylum Chlorophyta

Identify: cells look like assorted green shells
Subkingdom algae,
phylum Chrysophyta

Identify: cell is green with a little pink in the middle
subkingdom algae,
phylum pyrrophyta

Identify: green seaweed
subkingdom algae,
phylum phaeophyta

Identify: red seaweed
subkingdom algae,
phylum rhodophyta

Which of the following genera contain organisms with chloroplasts?
Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Spirogyra
Genera Euglena and Spirogyra

What is the function of a contractile vacuole? What is the difference between this and a food vacuole?
A contractile vacuole collects excess water and releases it into the cell’s surroundings. It regulates the amount of water in the cell, while the food vacuoles store and hold food.

What is the difference between endoplasm and ectoplasm?
They both make up the cytoplasm, but ectoplasm is found near the plasma membrane while endoplasm is denser and is nearer to the center of the cell.

Name 3 pathogenic organisms from kingdom protista
Toxoplasma
Trypanosoma
Plasmodium

What are the main features that separate organisms into phylum Sporozoa?
These organisms form spores and have no real means of locomotion

Why do ciliates have two nuclei?
They require so much energy that they need one for reproduction and one for controlling metabolism

What is the difference between the conjugation that occurs in paramecium and that which occurs in bacteria?
each paramecium transfers DNA to the other, while only 1 bacterium transfers DNA to the other

Which phylum contains the organisms responsible for most of the photosynthesis on earth?
phylum Chrysophyta (which contains the dinoflagellates)

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Flagellum
locomotion, phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Food vacuole
stores food. phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Contractile vacuole
removes excess water, releasing pressure. phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Pellicle
retains cell shape. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Chloroplast
stores chlorophyll. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Eyespot
detects light. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Cilia
locomotion. Ciliophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Nucleus
contains DNA. Ciliophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Oral Groove.
food intake and conjugation. Ciliophora

What are large deposits of diatom remains called? What are two of its uses?
Diatomaceous earth. Abrasives and filters

What is red tide?
Red tide is an algae bloom of dinoflagellates.

What substances produced by members of phylum Rhaeophyta is useful for thickening ice cream?
algin