Biology essay questions.

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Explain the process of speciation (5)
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1.Process where one species comes from an existing species 2.Two species became genetically isolated 3.Theory of Natural selection acts on that population independently 4. Natural selection changes the alleles over time 5.Since the two species can’t interbreed, they have become reproductively isolated and breed with their own species
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Outline the role of variation in evolution (3)
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1. Variation caused by meiosis or mutations 2.Variations allow individuals to adapt to the environment 3. Variation allows the species to survive to reproductive age
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Define the term homologous structures (1)
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Similar in structure, but have different functions
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Describe Darwin’s theory of evolution (4)
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1.Produce more offspring than they actually need to increase the chance of survival 2. increase competition-survival of the fittest 3. Want to be able to pass on advantageous genes to offspring 4. Evolution is a cumulative change over time
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Explain evolution of a species by natural selection in response to environmental change (7)
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1.Species show variation 2. Variation is a change in your phenotype 3. Variation is inherited 4. Organisms produce more offspring than they need, this is called overpopulation 5. Overpopulation leads to survival of the fittest 6. during survival of the fittest resources are limited 7. If resources are limited, the best adapted survive 8. This leads to a population that is adapted over time
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Explain how natural selection leads to evolution (8)
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1. Parents of other organisms overproduce to increase survival rate 2. Those offspring show variation 3. Best adapted will survive 4. Best traits will be passed on 5. advantageous traits will be inherited from the parents 6. advantageous traits will be passed onto offspring 7. evolution is a cumulative change over time
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Discuss the theory of evolution by natural selection (8)
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1. theory of natural selection proposed the theory 2. theory was proposed based on his observations 3. Darwin saw that organisms were overpopulating 4. Darwin saw variation between species 5. He also saw that some animals were simply better adapted 6. Darwin knew evolution was a change in a species over time 7. Fossils are evidence of evolution 8. Lamarck’s theory was that acquired traits were passed on if you used it
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Describe how sexual reproduction promotes genetic variation within a species (4)
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1.meiosis promotes genetic variation 2. during meiosis crossing over happens 3. during meiosis random assortment happens 4. genetic variation happens by chance

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