Biology Chapter 4: Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry
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Chemistry of organic compounds frequently found in living things
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Organic compounds
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Contain carbon and hydrogen. Sometimes oxygen and nitrogen. Make up living things. Store energy
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Inorganic compounds
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Do not contain carbon and hydrogen. No stored energy. Water carbon dioxide salts acids bases
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Difference between organic and inorganic
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Size and complexity of organic compound. Related to structure of carbon atom. Can form four covalent bonds in chains or rings. Size and variety of arrangements is unlimited
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Hydrocarbons
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Contain only carbon and hydrogen. If not hydrocarbon can have nitrogen oxygen or functional groups
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Functional groups
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Give molecules distinctive properties. Alcohol groups. Organic acid group. Amino group
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Alcohol group
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Functional group. OH. More soluble in water than similar molecules without the alcohol groups
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Organic acid group
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Carboxyl. Functional group. COOH. Releases h+ ions
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Amino group
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Functional group. NH2. Accepts h+ ions
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Amount of different parts that make up cell
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60-70 water. One mineral ions. Rest is composed of organic molecules
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Macromolecules
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Very large organic molecules which are composed of smaller building blocks
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Four classes of organic molecules
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Carbohydrates. lipids. proteins. nucleic acids
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Carbohydrates
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Composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen. Same ratio of h to o as water. Carbo (carbon) hydrate (water). Main function to provide source of energy
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Monosaccharides
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Building blocks of carbohydrates. Smallest. Simple sugar. Usually have five or six carbon. Ring with c and one o.
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Examples of monosaccharides
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C6h12o6. Glucose. Formed in photosynthesis. Used In respiration. Fuel used by all living cells. Fructose. Fruit sugar. Galactose. Milk sugar
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Disaccharides
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C12h22o11. Double sugar. Monosaccharides hook together
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Examples of disaccharides
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Maltose. Malt sugar. Glucose and glucose. Sucrose. Cane. Table sugar. Glucose and fructose. Lactose. Milk sugar. Glucose and galactose
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Dehydration synthesis
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Process by which simple molecules are bonded together. Bonds form as OH from one molecule and H from a tiger are removed and form water. Two large molecules join through O
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Name dehydration synthesis
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Synthesis means putting together. Dehydration means remove water. In living cells brought about by action of enzymes
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Dehydration synthesis word equation
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Glucose + glucose forms maltose + water
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Hydrolysis
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Occurs when one large molecule is broken down into smaller units when water is added. Also regulated by enzymes
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Example of hydrolysis and word equation
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Maltose is added to water to form glucose and glucose. Maltose + water forms glucose + glucose
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Polysaccharides
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Complex sugars formed when a number of simple sugars are joined together by dehydration synthesis. Long chains of repeating sugar units. Large molecules of chains polymers. Organisms store excess sugar in this form
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Polymers
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Large molecules of chains in polysaccharides
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Examples of polysaccharides
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Starch. How plants store glucose. Glycogen. stored carbohydrates in liver and muscle of animals (animal starch). Cellulose. Makes up cell wall
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Lipids
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Include fats oils and waxes. Do not dissolve in water. Will dissolve in nonpolar substances like alcohol. Composed of C H O. Less O than carbs. Means more energy than carbs
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Functions of lipids
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Cell structure. Cell membrane and sheath on nerve cells Stores energy. Twice as much energy per unit volume than carbs. Mammals forms subcutaneous layer that cushions and insulates
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Why are lipids important for animals
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More energy in less space than carbs. Animals can move around with stored energy and survive for several days
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Building blocks of lipids
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Fatty acids and glycerol
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Fatty acids
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Building blocks of lipids. Long chains of carbon with hydrogen bonded. At end of chain there is an organic acid
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Glycerol
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Building blocks of lipids. Three carbon with three alcohol groups
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Dehydration synthesis of lipid
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One glycerol + three fatty acids forms one triglyceride and three water
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Oil
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Lipids that are liquid at room temperature
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Fats
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Lipids that tend to be solid at room temperature
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Saturated fatty acids
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Have single bonds that hold all hydrogen it possibly can. Animal fat
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Unsaturated fatty acids
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Have more than two double bonds. Vegetable oils
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Cholesterol
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Type of lipid thought to play a role in build up of deposits in arteries. Can cause heart attacks
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Protein
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Composed of c h o but also nitrogen. Tend to be very large molecules. Type of protein determined by sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain. 3D shape
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Functions of proteins
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Structural (forms cell membrane. Much of solid part of protoplasm. Makes up hair nail cartilage) Pigment. (Coloring in eye blood skin) Hormones (chemical messengers that regulate body) Contractile material (allows muscle movement) Antibodies (protects against foreign substances) Enzymes (enables complex chemical reaction to occur with speed and precision)
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Amino acids
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Building blocks of proteins. 20 different kinds. Each has central c. Carboxylate group. Single h. Amino group. R (remainder. Difference in 20 kinds)
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Dehydration synthesis in amino acids
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Bond forms between carboxyl group of one amino acid and amino group of next. Peptide bond.
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Peptide bond
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Bond formed between c and n when amino acids undergo dehydration synthesis. Dipeptide. Tripeptide. Polypeptide
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Primary structure proteins
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Order or sequence of amino acids
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Secondary structure proteins
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Coiling of chain of amino acids caused by hydrogen bonding between amino acids
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Tertiary structure proteins
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Folds. Twists caused by bonding between r groups. give characteristic shape and shape determines function
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Enzymes
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Protein substances that make chemical reactions possible in living cells. Allow burning. Enter reaction only temporarily just to cause it. Not changed by reaction. Can be used again. Act as organic catalyst
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Main difference between chemical reaction of inorganic and organic
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Cannot have combustion such as in engines in living things. Living things still need to burn glucose to release energy. Occurs in small steps. Molecule broken bit at a time. Occur at body temp. Enzymes make it possible
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Catalyst
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Substance that affects reaction but is not changed by it. Enzymes
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Substrate
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Substances that is acted upon by catalyst
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How are enzymes named
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Name from substrate and end in ase. Maltose acted on by maltose. Proteins by professes. Lipid by lipases
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How do enzymes work
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Ability of enzyme to act as catalyst depends on shape. Active site on surface. Substrate fits shape of active site. When they come in contact form enzyme substrate complex temporarily. May break down substrate or cause to join
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Characteristics of enzyme action
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Small amount of enzyme can cause reaction of large amount of substrate. Short time to form enzyme complex. Used over so cells need only small amounts enable cell reactions to occur at body temp Work best at certain temp (enzyme action depends on random motion of molecules. Effectiveness greatest at optimum temp) Each works best at certain ph (pepsin needs acidic while trypsin in intestines needs basic) Rate of reaction depends on concentration of enzyme and substrate Some need coenzymes to function. Organic compounds but not protein. Some vitamins Some function in cell some outside
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Nucleus acids
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Macromolecules. Building blocks are smaller units. Nucleotides. DNA. Rna. Each nucleotide has five carbon sugar. phosphate group. One of four nitrogen bases
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DNA composition
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C5 sugar is deoxyribose. Nitrogen base is adenine thymine guanine cytosine. Shape is double helix. Very long. Location nucleus carried genetic code
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RNA composition
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C5 sugar is ribose. Nitrogen base is adenine uracil guanine cytosine. Shape is single strand relatively short. Location is in nucleus and cytoplasm and is involved in protein synthesis
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Nitrogen bases in nucleic acids
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Sequence of nitrogen bases act as code that determine what proteins will be made. Proteins in particular enzymes determine nature and activities of cell
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DNA
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Deoxyribonucleic acid. Hereditary material that is passed from one generation to next. Makes up chromosomes
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RNA
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Ribonucleic acid. Works with DNA to direct and control development and activities of cells
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Properties of water
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Polar molecule. Negative charge at o end. Negative end of one molecule attracts positive of other. Stick together with this cohesion
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Cohesion
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Force of attraction between like polar molecules. Reason water holds heat better than other molecules. Need more energy to overcome cohesiveness
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Adhesion
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Force of attraction between polar molecules of two different substances. Water sticks to many other molecules. Makes water good solvent. Can dissolve most polar molecules and ionic compounds

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