Biology Chapter 18!!!!!!!!!!!

scientist assign each kind of organism a universally accepted name in a system know as?
binomial nomenclature

which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin?
fungi

A genus is composed of a number of related?
species

in taxonomy diff classes of organisms might be grouped into the next larger category a?
phylum

analysis of derived characteristics is used to generate a?
cladogram

similar genes are evidence of?
common ancestry

________ is a group of closely related species?
genus

the domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments?
archaea

for many species there are often difference in their?
common name

several diff classes make up a?
phylum

what do all organisms have in common?
they use DNA and RNA to pass info

in linnaeus system of classification how many taxonomic categories were there?
7

the domain ________ is composed of the kingdom eubacteria?
Bacteria

what kingdom composed the three-kingdom classification system used by scientist in the 1800″s?
animals, plants, and protits

what do scientist consider when they perform cladistic analysis?
derived characteristics

which of the kingdoms in the six-kingdom system of classification was once grouped with plants?
fungi

the procedure of grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called?
evolutionary classification

in binomial nomenclature which of the 2 terms is capitalized?
the first term(genus)

the use of two-part scientific name for organisms is called?
binomial nomenclature

organisms in the kingdoms eubacteria and archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called?
monera

which 2 kingdoms did linneaus recognize?
plants and animals

the three domain system recognizes fundamental differences between 2 groups of?
prokaryotes

animals that are warm blooded have body hair and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class?
mammalian

sometimes organisms that are not closely related look similar because of?
convergent evolution

the domain that includes that kingdom eubacteria is?
bacteria

the scientific organisms and assigning them universally accepted names is known as?
taxonomy

in good system of classification, organisms placed into a particular group are less similar to each other than they are to organisms in other groups? T/F
false

what is the genus of the grizzly bear Ursus arctos?
Ursus because the genus is always capitalized

a group of organization in taxonomy is called a taxonomic category or?
taxon

the largest taxonomic category in linnaeus’s system of classification is the 1)______ and the smallest is the 2)______
1)kingdom
2)species

what two kingdoms did Linnaeus name?
animalia and plante

why do biologist use a classification system to study the diversity of life?
they use it to name and group the organisms in a logical manner

what traits did Linnaeus consider when classifying organisms?
linnaeus tried to group organisms according to biologically important characteristics

What problems are faced by taxonomists who rely on body structure comparisons?
It was a difficult to make a decision on which similarities and difference are most important

Darwins theory of evolution changes the way biologist thought about classification?T/F
True

How do biologist now group organisms into categories?
Biologists group them into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent but not just physical similarities

Genera places within a family should be less closely related to one another than to members of any other family?T/F
False

The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history is called?
Evolutionary classification

Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members are called?
Derived characters

A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms is called a(an)?
Cladogram

Derived characters are used to construct a Cladogram?T/F
True

Some organisms do not have DNA and RNA?T/F
False

How do similarities in genes show that humans and yeast share a common descent?
Humans and yeast have a gene that codes for a myosin protein. This similarities at the molecular level indicates a shared common ancestry

A model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently is know as a(an)?
Molecular clock

A molecular clock relies on the repeating process?
Mutations

Why are only neutral mutations useful for molecular clocks?
Neutral mutations make up in the DNA of diff species at about the same rate because they are unaffected by natural selection

The degree of dissimilarity in DNA sequences is an indication of how long ago two species shared a common ancestor?T/F
True

Why are there many molecular clocks in a genome instead of just one?
Some genes accumulate mutations faster than others

The scientific view of life was more complex in Linnaeus time?T/F
False

What fundamental traits did Linnaeus use to separate plants from animals?
Animals were mobile organisms and they use food for energy and plants are green, photosynthetic organisms that use energy from the sun

What type organisms were later places in kingdom Protista?
Microorganisms were later placed in this kingdom

Mushroom, yeast, and mold have been places in their own kingdom which is called?
Fungi

Why did scientists place bacteria in their own kingdom the monera?
Bacteria lack nuclei, mitochondria, and chloroplast

What are the two groups in which monera is separated?
1)eubacteria
2)archaebacteria

A more inclusive category than any other including the kingdom is the?
Domain

What type of analyses have scientist used to group modern organisms into domains?
Have used molecular analyses

Three domains?
1)bacteria
2)archaea
3)eukarya

All members of the domain bacteria are parasites?T/F
False

Many members of the domain archaea can survive only in the absence of oxygen?T/F
True

Protista
They include slime molds and giant kelp

Plantae
They include mosses and ferns

Animalia
They have no cell wall or chloraplasts

The science that specializes in the classification of an organism is?
Taxonomy

In classifying organisms orders are grouped together into?
Classes

The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus taxonomic categories is the?
Kingdom

What shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms?
Cladogram

THESE MIGHT BE REPEATED