Biology Chapter 1 Study Guide

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science
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An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
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observation
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Process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way using the senses
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data
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Information gathered through observation or experimentation.
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inference
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A logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.
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hypothesis
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A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.
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spontaneous generation
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Hypothesis stating that life could arise from nonliving matter.
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controlled experiment
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An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time.
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Independant Variable
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the one thing that you are changing in the experiment
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dependent variable
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A variable that changes in response to a change in the manipulated variable.
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theory
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A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
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Biology
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Science that seek to understand the living world.
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cell
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Collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life. Basic unit of life.
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sexual reproduction
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Process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
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asexual reproduction
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Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself.
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metabolism
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All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
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stimulus
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A signal to which an organism responds.
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homeostasis
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Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
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evolution
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The ability of a group of organisms to change over time for survival in an ever-changing world.
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metric system
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A decimal system of measurements whose units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of 10.
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microscope
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An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
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compound light microscope
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Microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image.
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electron microscope
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Microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen.
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cell culture
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group of cells grown in a nutrient solution from a single original cell.
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cell fractionation
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Technique in which cells are broken into pieces and the different cell parts are separated.

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