Biology : Ch.1 Scientific Thinking

question

what is science?
answer

an intellectual activity , encompassing observation, description,experimentation, and explanation of natural phenomena.
question

biology
answer

the study of living things
question

science is…
answer

a pathway by which we can discover and better understand the world around us .
question

what is biological literacy
answer

the ability to (1) use the process of scientific inquiry to think creatively about real world issues that have biological component (2) communicate these thoughts to others (3) integrate these ideas into your decision making
question

biological literacy is essential in the modern world because…
answer

it helps us make wise decisions
question

an effective approach to understanding the world is..
answer

the scientific method
question

scientific method
answer

is the process of examination and discovery
question

scientific method differs from other approaches in that…
answer

it is based off empirical knowledge, which is based on experience and observations that are rational,testable,and repeatable
question

how do you use the scientific method ?
answer

to explore a wide variety of thoughts, events, or phenomena
question

basic steps in the scientific method are…
answer

(1) make observations (2) formulate hypothesis (3) devise a testable prediction (4) conduct a critical experiment (5) draw conclusions and make revisions
question

step 1: make observations
answer

the scientific method always begins with making observations: we simply look for interesting patterns or cause-and-effect relationships
question

step 2: formulate hypothesis
answer

a proposed explanation for observed phenomena
question

hypothesis must accomplish 2 things:
answer

(1) must clearly establish mutually exclusive alternate explanations for a phenomena (2) must generate testable predictions
question

step 3: devise testable prediction
answer

for a hypothesis to be useful, it must generate a testable prediction
question

step 4: conduct a critical experiment
answer

a critical experiment is one that makes it possible to decisively determine whether a particular hypothesis is correct
question

step 5: draw conclusions, make revisions
answer

based on the results of the experimental test, we can revise a hypothesis and explain the observable world with increasing accuracy.
question

scientific theories
answer

they are hypothesis that have been so strongly and persuasively supported by empiracal observation that the community views them as very unlikely to be altered by new evidence
question

to draw conclusions from experiments, it is essential to…
answer

hold constant all variables we are not interested in. control and experimental groups should differ only with respect to the treatment of interest. differences in outcomes between groups can be attributed to the treatment .
question

repeatable experiements…
answer

increase our confidence
question

biases
answer

can influence our behavior ,including collection and interpretation of data. with careful controls , it is possible to minimize such biases.
question

visual displays of data can…
answer

help us understand and explain phenomena
question

common visual displays of data used in biology
answer

bar graph, line graph, pie chart
question

independent variable
answer

value can be changed as required
question

dependent variable
answer

value cannot be controlled
question

statistics
answer

can help us evaluate whether any differences between a treatment group and a control group can be attributed to the treatment rather than random chance
question

pseudoscience
answer

individuals make scientific sounding claims that are NOT supported by trustworthy , methodical scientific studies
question

anecdotal observations
answer

evidence based on just one or a few observations , people conclude that there is or is not a link between two things
question

although the diversity of life on earth is tremendous…
answer

the study of life is unified by themes of hierarchical organization and the power of evolution

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member