Biology 103 Inorganic Chemistry

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matter
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Anything that takes up space and has mass
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matter
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Consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations and is composed of incredibly tiny particles called atoms and molecules
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Element
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A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical reactions.
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Today we recognize____ elements that occur naturally in nature.
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92
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All matter, living or non-living, is made up of one or more of the ___ fundamental substances called elements.
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112
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Living organisms are composed of only ___ different elements.
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26
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___ of the 92 natural elements are essential to life.
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25
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Six elements make up ___ of the body weight of most organisms.
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98%
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what six elements make up 98% of the body weight of most organisms
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carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
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_____,____,_____,_____ make up 96% of living matter.
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Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
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____,_____,____,_____ make up the remaining 4% of living matter
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Phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium
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Trace elements
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Required by an organism in only minute amounts.
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iron
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needed by blood cells, hemoglobin
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hemoglobin
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allows oxygen to be transported
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iodine
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A deficiency of iodine can cause the thyroid gland to grow to abnormal size
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goiter
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iodine deficiency, secrets growth hormones, regulates calcium levels in the blood
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Atoms
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Smallest unit of matter to enter into chemical reactions
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The atomic structure determines the behavior of an
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element
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_____ is determined by the number and the location of valance electrons.
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reactivity
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atoms
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Smallest particles of an element
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Basic building block of matter Consists of 3 subatomic particles
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protons, neutrons, and electrons
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protons
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carry a positive charge
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electrons
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carry a negative charge
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neutrons
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carry no charge
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nucleus
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dense center of the atom
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Elements
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The atomic structure determines the behavior
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atomic number
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number of protons
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mass number
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number of protons and neutrons
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Each element has an atomic number which
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tells the number of protons
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each element has an mass number which tells the
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sum of protons and neutrons
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each element has a chemical______ & ________
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symbol and name
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Atoms equation
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Number of protons = Number of electrons
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Octet rule
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All atoms tend to fill their outermost shell (valence shell) with the maximum number of electrons.
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inert element (noble gas)
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complete valence shell Octet Rule, does not combine chemically with other elements
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a complete Valence shell has _____ electrons
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8
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Atoms with same number of valence electrons show
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similar chemical behavior
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Atom with incomplete valence shell is
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chemically reactive
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Electron cloud
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Electrons travel around the nucleus in certain regions
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1st level of electron cloud holds up to
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2 electrons
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2nd level of electron cloud holds up to
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8 electrons
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3rd level of electron cloud holds up to
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18 electrons
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4th level of electron cloud holds up to
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32 electrons
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5th level of electron cloud holds up to
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50 electrons
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Electron dot diagram
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Shows the number of valence electrons that element has
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valence electrons
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electrons in the outer energy level
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isotopes
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Atoms of the same element have different number of neutrons
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radioactivity
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is the instability of an atom due to having more neutrons than electrons
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The periodic table Arrange horizontally in the order of increasing atomic number
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atomic number
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the periodic table Arrange vertically according to the____ in the outermost shell with the exception of helium
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the number of electrons
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elements
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are classified as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases
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Arrangement of the periodic table________ 7 horizontally rows
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periods
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Arrangement of the periodic table _________ 18 vertical columns
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groups
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Arrangement of the periodic table _______ make up majority of the table
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metals
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Arrangement of the periodic table ________ are located on the right hand side
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non metals
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Arrangement of the periodic table ______ are on the stair-step line
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metalloids
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Arrangement of the periodic table ________ are found in group 18 or 8A
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noble gases
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Molecule
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A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds and having no overall charge (example: water)
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Diatomic molecule
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molecules that may be made of atoms of the same element (examples: hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, & iodine)
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Compounds
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A substance that is composed of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. (Examples: water, sugar, salt)
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A ________ has characteristics beyond those of its combined elements.
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compound
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Chemical reactions
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Bonds between atoms are formed or broken which produces different substances
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chemical change
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hen a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances (example: digestion of food)
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Components of a chemical reaction
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reactants and products
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reactants
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starting substances
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products
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new substances that are formed
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Ionic bonding
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Attractive force between two ions of opposite charges, occurs between metals and nonmetals
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ionic bonds
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Atoms give up or take one or more electrons in order to achieve a stable outermost shell, attracted to each other by opposite charges
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ions
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Atoms with unequal numbers of electrons and protons
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cation
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more protons than electrons, positively charged ions
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anions
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more electrons than protons, negatively charged ions
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Covalent Bonds
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Atoms share electrons , Typically found in organic compounds
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Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds
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The more electronegative an atom, the more strongly it attracts shared electrons.
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nonpolar covalent bonds
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form by equal sharing of electrons between atoms.
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polar covalent bonds
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form by an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
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Covalent Bonding
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Atoms share electrons and having no overall charge, Occurs only nonmetals, Found in organic molecules
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Dissociation of polar water molecules causes
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water to ionize to form H+ and OH-
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water dissociates into
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equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.
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acids
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are molecules that dissociate in water and release hydrogen ions (protons). (example: HCl)
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heat
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Measure of the total quantity of KE due to molecular movement
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Bases
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are molecules that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions. Example: NaOH
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pH scale
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Defined as negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
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pH scale
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Indicates acidity or alkalinity of a solution
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pH Scale Under pH 7 is
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acidic
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pH Scale Under pH 7 has
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more hydrogen, less hydroxide ions
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pH scale over 7
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basic
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The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; being a logarithmic scale, each pH unit is a
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10-fold difference in H+ concentration.
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Stomach acids
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activate digestive enzymes and kill bacteria.
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pH scale over 7 has
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less hydrogen ions, more hydroxide ions
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antacids are
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bases
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acids
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dissolve in water, releasing hydrogen ions, pH less than 7, has a sour taste
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bases
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Release hydroxide ions or either take up hydrogen ions, Have a pH that is greater than 7, Have a bitter taste
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Water
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is a polar molecule and has an unequal distribution of charge
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water
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forms a hydrogen bond (attraction of opposite charges between hydrogen and oxygen that are weak)
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water
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expands when it freezes and helps move substances by diffusion
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water
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Resists changes in temperature, requires more heat to increase its temperature, maintains homeostasis
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Cohesion
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Clinging together of molecules of the same substance
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Adhesion
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Clinging of one substance to another.
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capillary movement
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Allows for movement against gravity
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Surface Tension
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Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
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Kinetic energy
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Anything that moves
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temperature
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Measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
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evaporative cooling
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Hottest molecules (greatest KE) leave as a gas causing a cooling effect
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mass
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how many atoms in matter
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levels of organization
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atomic, molecular, organelle, cellular,tissue, organ, organ system, organism
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1st shell can hold how many electrons
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2
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2nd shell can hold how many electrons
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8
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3rd shell can hold how many electrons
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8
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potential energy
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stored energy
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energy
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capacity to do work
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radio isotopes
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unstable, decay
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decomposition
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breaks down materials
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synthesis reaction
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puts together materials
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hydrogen bond
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water
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covalent bond
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atoms share electrons
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ionic bond
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tranfers electron 1 atom to another, 2 different charge particles
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dissociate
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break into ions
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solution
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mixture
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solute
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dissolves in h2o
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solvent
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does the dissolving
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characteristics of water
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stabilize body temp, absorb/release heat, protection/lubricant, chemical reactions, transport/blood
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water sticks to water because of
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hydrogen bonding
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hydrophillic
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water loving
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hydrophobic
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fear of water
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adhension
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water to wall
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cohension
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water sticking to water

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