Biology 103 Inorganic Chemistry Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Jose Escobar
matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass
matter
Consists of chemical elements in pure form
and in combinations and is composed of incredibly tiny particles called atoms and molecules
Element
A substance that cannot be broken down to
other substances by ordinary chemical
reactions.
Today we recognize____ elements that occur
naturally in nature.
92
All matter, living or non-living, is made up of
one or more of the ___ fundamental substances
called elements.
112
Living organisms are composed of only ___
different elements.
26
___ of the 92 natural elements are essential
to life.
25
Six elements make up ___ of the body
weight of most organisms.
98%
what six elements make up 98% of the body weight of most organisms
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
_____,____,_____,_____ make up 96% of living matter.
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
____,_____,____,_____ make up the remaining 4% of living matter
Phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium
Trace elements
Required by an organism in only minute
amounts.
iron
needed by blood cells, hemoglobin
hemoglobin
allows oxygen to be transported
iodine
A deficiency of iodine can cause the thyroid gland
to grow to abnormal size
goiter
iodine deficiency, secrets growth hormones, regulates calcium levels in the blood
Atoms
Smallest unit of matter to enter into
chemical reactions
The atomic structure determines the behavior
of an
element
_____ is determined by the number and the location of valance electrons.
reactivity
atoms
Smallest particles of an element
Basic building block of matter Consists of 3 subatomic particles
protons, neutrons, and electrons
protons
carry a positive charge
electrons
carry a negative charge
neutrons
carry no charge
nucleus
dense center of the atom
Elements
The atomic structure determines the behavior
atomic number
number of protons
mass number
number of protons and neutrons
Each element has an atomic number which
tells the number of protons
each element has an mass number which tells the
sum of protons and neutrons
each element has a chemical______ & ________
symbol and name
Atoms equation
Number of protons = Number of electrons
Octet rule
All atoms tend to fill their outermost shell
(valence shell) with the maximum number
of electrons.
inert element (noble gas)
complete valence shell Octet Rule, does not combine chemically with other elements
a complete Valence shell has _____ electrons
8
Atoms with same number of valence
electrons show
similar chemical behavior
Atom with incomplete valence shell is
chemically reactive
Electron cloud
Electrons travel around the nucleus in
certain regions
1st level of electron cloud holds up to
2 electrons
2nd level of electron cloud holds up to
8 electrons
3rd level of electron cloud holds up to
18 electrons
4th level of electron cloud holds up to
32 electrons
5th level of electron cloud holds up to
50 electrons
Electron dot diagram
Shows the number of valence electrons that
element has
valence electrons
electrons in the outer energy level
isotopes
Atoms of the same element have different number of neutrons
radioactivity
is the instability of an atom due to having more neutrons than electrons
The periodic table Arrange horizontally in the order
of increasing atomic number
atomic number
the periodic table Arrange vertically according to the____ in the outermost shell with the exception of helium
the number of electrons
elements
are classified as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases
Arrangement of the periodic
table________ 7 horizontally rows
periods
Arrangement of the periodic
table _________ 18 vertical columns
groups
Arrangement of the periodic
table _______ make up majority of the table
metals
Arrangement of the periodic
table ________ are located on the right hand side
non metals
Arrangement of the periodic
table ______ are on the stair-step line
metalloids
Arrangement of the periodic
table ________ are found in group 18 or 8A
noble gases
Molecule
A group of atoms held together by covalent
bonds and having no overall charge (example: water)
Diatomic molecule
molecules that may be made of atoms of the same element (examples: hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen,
chlorine, bromine, & iodine)
Compounds
A substance that is composed of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. (Examples: water, sugar, salt)
A ________ has characteristics beyond those of its
combined elements.
compound
Chemical reactions
Bonds between atoms are formed or broken
which produces different substances
chemical change
hen a substance changes composition by
forming one or more new substances (example: digestion of food)
Components of a chemical reaction
reactants and products
reactants
starting substances
products
new substances that are formed
Ionic bonding
Attractive force between two ions of
opposite charges, occurs between metals and nonmetals
ionic bonds
Atoms give up or take one or more
electrons in order to achieve a stable
outermost shell, attracted to each other by opposite charges
ions
Atoms with unequal numbers of electrons and
protons
cation
more protons than electrons, positively charged ions
anions
more electrons than protons, negatively charged ions
Covalent Bonds
Atoms share electrons , Typically found in organic compounds
Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds
The more electronegative an atom, the more
strongly it attracts shared electrons.
nonpolar covalent bonds
form by equal sharing of electrons between atoms.
polar covalent bonds
form by an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
Covalent Bonding
Atoms share electrons and having no overall
charge, Occurs only nonmetals, Found in organic molecules
Dissociation of polar water molecules causes
water to ionize to form H+ and OH-
water dissociates into
equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.
acids
are molecules that dissociate in water
and release hydrogen ions (protons). (example: HCl)
heat
Measure of the total quantity of KE due to
molecular movement
Bases
are molecules that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions. Example: NaOH
pH scale
Defined as negative logarithm of the hydrogen
ion concentration
pH scale
Indicates acidity or alkalinity of a solution
pH Scale Under pH 7 is
acidic
pH Scale Under pH 7 has
more hydrogen, less hydroxide ions
pH scale over 7
basic
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; being a
logarithmic scale, each pH unit is a
10-fold difference in H+ concentration.
Stomach acids
activate digestive enzymes and kill bacteria.
pH scale over 7 has
less hydrogen ions, more hydroxide ions
antacids are
bases
acids
dissolve in water, releasing hydrogen ions, pH less than 7, has a sour taste
bases
Release hydroxide ions or either take up
hydrogen ions, Have a pH that is greater than 7, Have a bitter taste
Water
is a polar molecule and has an unequal distribution of charge
water
forms a hydrogen bond (attraction of opposite
charges between hydrogen and oxygen that
are weak)
water
expands when it freezes and helps move substances by diffusion
water
Resists changes in temperature, requires more heat to increase its temperature, maintains homeostasis
Cohesion
Clinging together of molecules of the same
substance
Adhesion
Clinging of one substance to another.
capillary movement
Allows for movement against gravity
Surface Tension
Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or
break the surface of a liquid
Kinetic energy
Anything that moves
temperature
Measures the intensity of heat due to the average
kinetic energy of the molecules.
evaporative cooling
Hottest molecules (greatest KE) leave as a
gas causing a cooling effect
mass
how many atoms in matter
levels of organization
atomic, molecular, organelle, cellular,tissue, organ, organ system, organism
1st shell can hold how many electrons
2
2nd shell can hold how many electrons
8
3rd shell can hold how many electrons
8
potential energy
stored energy
energy
capacity to do work
radio isotopes
unstable, decay
decomposition
breaks down materials
synthesis reaction
puts together materials
hydrogen bond
water
covalent bond
atoms share electrons
ionic bond
tranfers electron 1 atom to another, 2 different charge particles
dissociate
break into ions
solution
mixture
solute
dissolves in h2o
solvent
does the dissolving
characteristics of water
stabilize body temp, absorb/release heat, protection/lubricant, chemical reactions, transport/blood
water sticks to water because of
hydrogen bonding
hydrophillic
water loving
hydrophobic
fear of water
adhension
water to wall
cohension
water sticking to water

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