Biological Oceanography Exam 1 (Chapters 1-4)

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Biodiversity
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Diversity of life– number of species (Higher _______= more stable ecosystem)
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Chronometer
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Instrument used to determine latitude and longitude; important for navigation (First used by James Cook)
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Latitude
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How far North or South you are (Equator= middle= 0)
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Longitude
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How far East or West you are
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Atoll
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Coral reef that develops as a ring around a central lagoon; Darwin’s coral reef theory: Development of ______= reef growth, fringing reef/ developing lagoon, ______ formation
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SCUBA
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Equipment that allows breathing underwater from tanks of compressed air; developed in 1940s; greatly increased access to shallow water; ability to observe live organisms; limited to 165ft (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
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SONAR
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Technique or equipment used to locate objects underwater by the detection of echoes; developed during WWII to find submarines– signal sent to ocean floor and time of echo returning back to surface was recorded; used today to determine water depth, bottom characteristics of sea floor, presence of schools of fish (Sound Navigation Ranging)
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ROV
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Remotely Operated Vehicle; unmanned, tethered to a ship, takes samples, smaller/ more maneuverable than submarines & can get to deeper depths; used to take 1st pictures of Titanic
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AUV
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Autonomous Underwater Vehicle; programed to go anywhere at any depth– can move up or down as needed
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Scientific Method
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Systematic approach of formulating hypotheses, and designing observational and experimental studies to test those hypotheses; set of procedures in which scientists learn about the world by answering a question and discovering facts
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Induction
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Reasoning using separate, specific observations to arrive at general conclusions
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Deduction
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Reasoning using general principles to make specific conclusions
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Hypothesis
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A statement to explain your observations, being derived from existing knowledge; well defined and testable; a statement that might be true
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Azoic Theory
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Early hypothesis about marine biology that below a certain depth, no marine life would exist; later proved incorrect
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Aristotle
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Considered “first marine biologist”; realized that fish use gills to breathe
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Carolus Linneaus
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(1707-1778) Known for binomial nomenclature– every animal has a common name as well as a scientific name; system for naming species (Genus name, species name) *All italicized; Genus= Capitalized; Species= lowercase
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Georges Cuvier
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(1769-1832) Known for major scheme for classification based on body plan (Radiata, vertebrata, mollusca, etc); Basis for classification we have today (Phylum)
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James Cook
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1st to make scientific observations, beginning in 1768; full time naturalist on board and brought back specimens of plants and animals; first to use chronometer; killed in fight with Hawaiians in 1779; first European to see Antarctic Ice Fields, Hawaii, New Zealand, and Tahiti
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Edward Forbes
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(1815-1854) Used a dredge (*bottom sampler; heavy sled with a mesh cage that’s dragged along sea floor) to collect organisms on sea floor
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Charles Darwin
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Most famous of shipboard naturalists; 1831-1836 sailed around world on HMS Beagle; accomplishments: theory of evolution by natural selection, treatise on barnacles, and theory of formation of atolls
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HMS Beagle
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Sailing vessel that Darwin sailed on; 5 year voyage (1831- 1836)
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HMS Challenger
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Sailing vessel that was 1st dedicated to oceanographic expedition; specifically used for purpose of learning about life in the oceans– water and organism samples collected over 3 year expedition
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Charles Wyville Thompson
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Led HMS Challenger expedition in 1872; sailed around the world over 3 years; collected samples of water and organisms (systematic fashion and took meticulous notes); took 19 years to publish findings in 50 volumes; created foundation for modern marine science
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Covalent Bond
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Shared electrons between atoms
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Polar Molecule
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Unequal sharing of electrons between atoms; one side positively charged and the other negatively charged (ie. water= ______ _______; Oxygen side is negatively charged and Hydrogen side is positively charged)
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Hydrogen Bond
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Positive side of one molecule is attracted to negative side of another molecule (happens with water molecules); less than 1/10th the strength of covalent bonds
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Temperature
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Measure of the AVERAGE kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules in a substance
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Heat
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Measure of the TOTAL kinetic energy of the atoms and molecule sin a substance
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Latent Heat of Fusion
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The heat/ energy needed to change water from a solid to a liquid without a change in temperature
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Latent Heat of Vaporization
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The heat/ energy needed to change water from a liquid to a vapor without a change in temperature
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Specific Heat
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Refers to the quantity of heat required to produce a unit change in temperature per unit mass (how much energy is required to increase the temperature of something) *water= 1 cal/g/degree celsius
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Cohesion
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Attraction of water to itself (water molecules are attracted to each other and give water structure)
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Adhesion
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Attraction of water to other substances
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Surface Tension
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Cohesion of molecules at air-surface interface (at surface of body of water); high ____ _____ for water
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Capillary Action
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Movement of water in spaces of a porous material; result of adhesion but involves both cohesion and adhesion; occurs when adhesion is greater than cohesion; works against gravity
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Viscosity
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Resistance to motion (thickness; resistance to stirring); _____ of water is low compared to other liquids
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Density
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The weight (mass) of a given volume of a substance; mass per unit volume; higher for seawater than pure water
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Freezing Point Depression
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Pure water will freeze at zero, but as you add more salt– it becomes more dense– freezing point changes; initial temperature of water decreases as salinity increases
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Conduction
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Heat applied at one location increases molecular motion; this is passed on to adjacent molecules (greater the heat= greater the molecular motion *directly proportional relationship) ie. metals– electrical wire, boiling a pot of water on stove, spoon in hot pot of water
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Convection
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Density driven; a heated fluid moves and carries its heat to a new location (larger scale process than conduction) ie. heated air or water rises– furnace in house or air conditioning *NOTE: in terms of water, this is the most efficient method of distributing heat in water (large scale density differences that move water masses)
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Radiation
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Direct transmission of heat from its energy source; doesn’t require a medium ie. solar radiation– Earth’s heat comes from sun
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Attenuation
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Decrease in light intensity over distance; amount and intensity of light is reduced with depth *Greater in coastal waters than in open ocean because there are more particles in coastal water and there’s a greater productivity in coastal water
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High Specific Heat
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Water has a ____ _____ ______ compared to other Earth materials
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Salts
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Compounds that can break apart (dissociate) into atoms that have opposite charges (ions)
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Salinity
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The total amount of salts dissolved; generally expressed in parts per thousand Ocean water is 3.5% salt by weight (______= 35%)
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Ionic Bonds
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Electrons transferred from a metal atoms to a non-metal atom
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Conservative Constituents (def)
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(aka Major constituents) Make up 99% of seawater– exist in constant proportion to each other; ratio is always the same regardless of salinity
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Non-Conservative Constituents
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Some ions, dissolved gases, and organic molecules that do change in concentrations due to biological action
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Trace Elements
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Elements present in seawater at less than 1ppm
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Residence Time
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Average time that a substance remains in solution in ocean; depends on difference between rate of supply (from land) and rate of removal (*how fast it’s being put into ocean vs. how fast it’s being taken out of ocean)
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Principle of Constant Proportion
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Regardless of total salt content, ratio of one major ion to another remains the same at all depths and locations; conservative constituents; applies to open ocean; not coastal areas where rivers bring in large quantities of dissolved substances
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Conductivity
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Ability to detect electrical current; seawater is a better ______ than freshwater because it contains salt; higher salinity= higher _______
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Hydrometer
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Glass table with a led weight on bottom; will sink down depending on density; less salt= deeper it’ll sink/ lower it’ll float; higher salt= sink less/ higher it’ll float (*measures specific gravity)
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Refractometer
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A laboratory or field device used for the measurement of an index of refraction (the change in the direction of a wave as it moves into shallow water)
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Saturation Concentration
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Maximum amount of gas that can be held in solution; depends on temperature, salinity, and pressure; decreases as temperature or salinity increase; increases as pressure increases *Warmer water holds less gas than cooler water; same is true with salinity– higher salinity holds less gas in solution than lower salinity
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Photosynthesis
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Conversion of light into chemical energy; plants take in light to create Carbon from inorganic Carbon using CO2 (Equation: 6CO2 + H2O –> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Euphotic Zone
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Depth to which light penetrates– also called the photic zone; importance of this zone= where photosynthesis occurs
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Respiration
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Chemical process involved in the release of energy from organic matter (Equation: Organic matter (glucose) + O2 –> CO2 energy + H2O)
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Hypoxic/ Anoxic
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Sharp reduction of water oxygen; bacterial respiration strips oxygen creating low oxygen (aka _______) conditions; lacking oxygen
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Biological Pump
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Actions of plants that consume CO2 and the animals that respire creating CO2
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pH
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-log[H+] Scale from 0-14; below 7=acidic; above 7= basic; 7= neutral (Seawater pH ranges from 7.5 to 8.5, and the overall average is 7.8– slightly alkaline (basic))
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Nutrients
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A raw material other than carbon; essential for growth; ions required for plant growth (Nitrogen as nitrate; Phosphorus as phosphate; Silica as silicate)
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Organics
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Compound that contains Carbon; wide variety of _____ molecules in seawater; taken up by organisms; broken down into smaller molecules when organism dies; accumulate in sediment– eventually form oil and gas deposits
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Secchi Disk
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Disk used to measure light attenuation in surface water; depth measured at which you can’t determine difference from white and black segments on disk as it’s lowered into the water; depends on clarity of water
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SOFAR
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Zone of minimum sound velocity; sound produced in this layer cannot escape; bends toward region of minimum speed; because sound is trapped in this layer, it travels great distances (Sound Fixing And Ranging Channel)
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Redfield Ratio
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Discovered in 1934 that molar ratio of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in seawater and phytoplankton was similar (regardless of where the water came from) C:N:P= 106: 16: 1 when nutrients are not limiting 106:40:16:1 to add in diatoms (siliceous organisms) *Relatively constant ratio from coast to open ocean; fundamental to understanding of biogeochemistry of oceans (if there’s a variation in number values noticed, it indicates something unusual is happening)
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Desalination
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Taking salt out of seawater; process of obtaining freshwater from salt water; 4 methods: change of state, electrodialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis
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Refraction
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The change in the direction of a wave as it moves into shallow water
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Sea Ice
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Forms on the surface of the water; if temperature decreases enough, water will freeze to form sheets; formed from seawater; when freezing occurs, salts are left behind
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Icebergs
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Can be massive and irregular in shape; float with only 12% of mass above surface; formed by glaciers (rivers of ice that begin inland); as they move toward ocean, edge melts and large blocks break off (mostly in summer); formed from freshwater on land; break off of glacier and float into the ocean
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Advective Fog
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Warm air saturated with water vapor (humid air) moves over cooler water; water temperature is cooler than the air; as air moves over water, the water vapor condenses; hugs sea surface; most common type (and what we experience in FL)
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Sea Smoke
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Cold, dry air moves out over warmer water; air picks up water vapor and rises; rising air cooled below dewpoint (where it condenses and forms fog); happens on cold days
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Radiative Fog
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Warm, moist air condenses at night; doesn’t happen over water– generally found in valleys; during the day, sun heats air, water droplets evaporate to water vapor
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Conservative Constituents (elements)
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Chloride, Sodium, Sulfate, Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium
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Ocean Acidification
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Increase in atmospheric CO2 is decreasing ocean pH
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Solar Constant
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Rate of how much solar radiation is hitting the Earth; Without atmosphere, the radiation value at the equator would be 2; With atmosphere, the radiation value at the equator is 1.6
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Troposphere
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Lowest layer in atmosphere; location of most weather formations, clouds, etc; warmed from below (as you get higher in atmosphere, temp decreases– heat energy conducted from Earth’s surface and heating of air creates wind, weather, waves and currents)
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Tropopause
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A minimum temperature zone between troposphere and stratosphere; contains jet streams
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Stratosphere
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Layer in atmosphere above troposphere; temperature increases with increasing altitude (because atmosphere is getting thinner); contains ozone (O3)– absorbs UV radiation from sun and protects organisms living on Earth
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Ozone Layer
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_______ ______ in the atmosphere that deflects ultraviolet radiation, which is harmful to life/ organisms
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Greenhouse Gases
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Balance of gases in atmosphere (troposphere) that’s changing: Carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane
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Greenhouse Effect
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THe retention of heat in the lower atmosphere due to the presence of CO2, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases that allow solar light energy to penetrate to the earth’s surface but block the transmission of heat energy back into space which warms the Earth; light energy comes in but can’t get out
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Convection Cells
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Warmer (less dense) air rises and cooler (more dense) air sinks; warmer air rises and cools as it rises; gets cooler and drier; condenses which causes it to sink back down; between these areas, the air that flows horizontally is the wind (what we feel– the air that’s moving between high and low pressure systems)
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Coriolis Effect
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The tendency of objects moving large distances on Earth’s surface to bend to the the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere; only affects the direction of an object, not it’s speed
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Polar Cells
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Major convection cells at the poles that set up prevailing winds
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Ferrel Cells
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Major convection cells between 30 degrees and 60 degrees that set up prevailing winds
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Hadley Cells
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Major convection cells between 0 degrees and 30 degrees that set up prevailing winds
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ITCZ
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Intertropical Convergence Zone; at the equator (0 degrees); warm, moist air (rising); associated with highest surface temperatures
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Jet Stream
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High speed winds of upper troposphere; polar= westerlies (50-60 degrees N and S); subtropical= easterlies (30 degrees N and S); position of ____ _______s are important in determining weather in temperate zones
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Hurricanes
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Aka Tropical cyclones or typhoons; most violent storms on earth; 4 stages of development/ progression: tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, formation of ________; requirements for formation= heat and wind
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Storm Surge
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Winds and low pressure cause ocean water to pile up after formation of hurricane; results from wind pushing water ahead of it and water piling up
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El Nino (ENSO)
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Period of anomalous climatic conditions in tropical Pacific; occur ever 3-7 years; last 12-18 months; reverse of normal atmospheric conditions; warm surface water in the Eastern Pacific and a lack of upwelling off the Peruvian coast

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