Biochemistry Vocab Quiz #1

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Atom
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the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
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Molecule
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the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
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Element
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any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
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Ion
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atom that has a positive or negative charge
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Atomic Number
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the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Ionic Bond
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a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
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Covalent Bond
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a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
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Hydrogen Bond
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weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
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Polar
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describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
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Nonpolar
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a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
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Cohesion
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the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
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Surface Tension
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a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces
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Adhesion
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attraction between molecules of different substances
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Capillary Action
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a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
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Universal Solvent
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Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes
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Homeostasis
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process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
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Solution
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a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
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Homogeneous
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all of the same or similar kind or nature
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Solute
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the dissolved substance in a solution
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Solvent
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a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
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Acid
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compound that donates H+ ions to an aqueous solution and measures less than 7 on the pH scale
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Base
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Any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water and has a pH above 7
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pH Scale
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measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
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Indicator
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a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
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Buffer
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a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it

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