Biochemistry review

Carbon
No other kind of atom can form the number and variety of molecules that ___ can because it can bond to 4 other atoms at the same time to make carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
Necleotide
is made up of a sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group
Thymine
The nitrogen base found in DNA but NOT RNA is
Are hydrophobic and don’t dissolve in water
Lipids are different from other macro-molecules because they
Polysaccharides
Glycogen, cellulose, and starch are all
Phospholipids and protein
What 2 kinds of molecules combine to form cell membranes?
Nitrogen bases used to make nucleotides
Adenine, thymine, guanine, ctyosine, and uracil are all
The lipids “tails”
What part of a phospholipid molecule is NON-POLAR and HYDROPHOBIC?
Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
This molecule is
ATP
ATP
This molecule is
Amino Acids
The 20 different ____ used to make proteins differ in what is attached in their R group position
Cellulose
is a structural polysaccharide that makes plants sturdy
Lipids
One function of this is to provide insulation
Insulin
People with diabetes can’t make this to control their blood sugar
Proteins
made by joining amino acid subunits in long chains which provide a wide variety of functions in ccells
Carbohydrates
made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio
Nucleic Acids
made from nucleotide subunites which store and carry information
Lipids
Hydrophobic fats, oils, waxes, and steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains or multiple rings
1
How many sugars in a Monosaccharide?
More than 2
How many sugars in a Polysaccharide?
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Give 3 examples of a Monosaccharide
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
Give 3 examples of Polysaccharide
Provide energy, structure
Functions of Carbohydrates
DNA – genetic info
RNA – carry messages/ protein synthesis
Functions of Nucleic Acids
Insulation, Cushion organs, Forming cell membranes
Functions of Lipids
Structure, Movement, Hormones, Enzymes, Transportation
Functions of Proteins
Double stranded
DNA – is it single/double stranded?
Single stranded
RNA – is it single/double stranded?
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
DNA – Which Nitrogen bases does it contain?
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracyl
RNA – Which Nitrogen bases does it contain?
Deoxyribose
DNA – Which sugar does it contain?
Ribose
RNA – Which Sugar does it contain?
Contains genetics code for cell activities
DNA – Function(s)?
Carries messages from DNA to cell, Protein synthesis
RNA – Function(s)?
DNA
Double stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotides subunits containing A, T, G, and C that stores genetic info in cells
Hemogloben
Protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body
Phospholipid
Macromolecule with a polar glycerol/phosphate “head” and 2 non-polar hydrophobic “tails” used to make cell membranes
RNA
Single stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotide subunits containing A, U, C, and G which carries information from the DNA to the cell for protein synthesis
Starch
Storage form of glucose used by a plant cells
Glycogen
Storage form of glucose used by animal cells
Cellulose
Structural polysaccharides made from glucose subunits that makes plants sturdy
ATP
Nucleotide subunit made from ribose sugar, adenine, and 3 phosphates which stores and transports ENERGY in cells
Water
Polar molecule made from 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms that is required by all living things
Subtrates
Reactants in an enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction
Proteins
Macromolecule that can act as enzymes
Increasing the activation energy
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
Denature
Proteins (like enzymes) unwind or _____ when placed in extreme pH or temperature conditions
Unchanged during chemical reactions and reusable
Enzymes are
pH, Temperature
Name two envioronmental conditions that can cause proteins (enzymes) to change their shape

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