Biochemistry-Organic Molecules

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Activation Energy
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Energy needed to get a reaction started
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Active site
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Location on the enzyme where the substrate will bind
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Atoms
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The smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element- with three parts: protons, neutrons, electrons
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Biological Macromolecules
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A group of large molecules that interact with biological systems and their environments, include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
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Carbohydrates
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Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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Catalyst
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Increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
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Coenzyme
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Organic molecule associated with an enzyme to help in a reaction
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Competitive inhibitors
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Substance that reduces the activity level of an enzyme by binding in the active site of the substrate that it mimics
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Dehydration Synthesis
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Chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule
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Denature
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Change in the shape of a protein that can be caused by changes in temperature of PH
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Disaccharide
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Double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis, sucrose lactose, maltose
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Enzymes
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Biological catalysts which play an enormous roll in the body’s metabolism
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Essential amino acids
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10of the 20 required in the diet, not created in the body; milk
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Functional groups
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Give a molecule distinctive properties; alcohol group, carboxylate group, amino grouo
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Hormones
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Type of protein that acts as a messenger (chemical) that travel through the blood and act on target organs
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Hydrocarbon
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Any molecule made only of hydrogen and carbon atoms
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Hydrolysis
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Breaking down complex molecules by chemical addition of water
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Inorganic molecules
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Molecules that don’t contain carbon and hydrogen
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Isomer
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Compounds that have the same formula but different structures
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Lipids
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Organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen
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Macromolecules
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Very large organic molecule composed of smaller molecules
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Molecule
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Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
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Monomer
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Simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
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Monosaccharides
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Simple sugars: fructose, glucose, galactose
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Nucleic acids
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Complex polymer made of nucleotides; contains: nitrogen base, 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group
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Organic molecules
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Contains C, H, and usually O; found in Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acidd
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Peptide bonds
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Covalent bonds between two amino acids
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Polymer
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Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
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Polysaccharide
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Molecule formed by joining many monosaccharides together, are typically energy storage molecules or structural molecules
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Polyunsaturated fats
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More than one double bond between carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain
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Proteins
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Perform structural and regulatory functions in cells
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Saturated fats
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Fatty acid chains with only single bonds between carbon atoms ; straight chain, solid at room temperature
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Substrate
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Substance in which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
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Triglycerides
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Most common fat in organisms, derived from fatty foods eaten
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Unsaturated fats
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Fatty acid chain with one double bond between carbon atoms , curved chain, liquid at room temperature

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