BIO 210 – FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Anatomy
the study of structure
Physiology
the study of function
Metabolism
all the chemical reactions that happen in our body cells
Catabolism
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones. Catabolic reaction
Anabolism
The building up of complex molecules from simpler ones
Levels of Structural Organization
Atom (chemical), Molecule (chemical), Cell tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
Homeostasis
The maintenance of the internal environment regardless of external conditions
Negative feedback mechanism
Most feedback mechanisms are this type – regulating body temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose
Cranial Cavity
Brain and spinal cord
vertebral cavity
spinal cord
thoracic cavity
heart and lungs
abdominopelvic cavity
stoach digestive organs
parietal membrane
lines cavity wall
visceral membrane
lines the organs surface
ATP
a form of energy used by all reactions in cells. Made in the mitochondria
4 elements that make up 96% of the human body
Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen
atomic number
number of protons. Always the same as the number of electrons
Atomic mass
decimal number – number of protons and neutrons together – if you subtract the protons you get the number of neutrons
ionic bonds
the transfer of one or more electrons
anion
negative charge – gains one electron
cation
positive charge – loses one electron
covalent bond
shared electrons
2 types of covalent bonds
Polar – unequal sharing of electrons
Nonpolar – equal sharing of electrons
PH
Acid base concentration – homeostasis of acid base balance is regulated by chemicals called buffers
buffers
acccept hydrogen ions when PH is high and donates when the PH is low
Carbohydrates – organic compound
fructose, glycogen
Protiens – organic compound
amino acids and enzymes
Lipids – organic compound
triglycerides, cholesterol
Nucleic acids – organic compound
DNA, RNA
DNA nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (AGCT)
RNA nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil (AGSU)
Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer composed of hydrophilic (phosphate) heads and hydrophobic (lipid) tails
Resting membrane potential
maintained by sodium potassium pump (active transport) – takes 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in
K+ Potassium
10 times higher inside the cell – major intracellular cation
Na+ Sodium
10 times higher outside the cell – major extracellular cation
passive transport – osmosis
Movement of water. Water follows salt, thats what makes it move
Hypotonic solution
cells lyse/burst
Isotonic solution
no change
Hypertonic solution
cell shrink
cell cycle
before a cell can divide, it’s DNA has to be replicated exactly
3 stages of interphase
G1 – Growth and metabolism
S – DNA replication
G2 – Preparation for division
Cell Division – Mitosis
4 Phases
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Prophase
chromosomes appear
Metaphase
chromosomes cluster in the middle
Anaphase
daughter chromosomes appear
Telophase
identical sets of chromosomes at opposite poles; cleavage furrow
Cytokinesis
complete division of the cell
Protein synthesis – Transcription
DNA’s information is encoded by a codon in mRNA. Happens in the nucleus
Protein synthesis – Translation
Information carried by the mRNAis decoded by an anticodon and used to assemble polypeptides. Happens in the cytosol/ribosome
Tissues
Groups of cells similar in structure that perform a specific function
Epithelial Tissue
a sheet of cells that cover a body surface or lines a cavity
Connective Tissue (CT)
CT Proper – fibroblasts
Cartilage – chondrocytes
Bone – Osteocytes
Blood – erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets
Muscle tissue
skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
nervous tissue
neurons
neuroglia
Glandular epithelia – Endocrine
ductless glands that secrete directly into the bloodstream. Product does not leave the body (hormones)
Glandular epithelia – exocrine
secrete their products through ducts onto body surfaces – the EXit the body. Sebaceous (oil) glands nd sudiferous (sweat) glands
3 regions of the skin
epidermis (outermost)
dermis (vascular layer)
hypodermis – subcutaneous
5 cell layers of the epidermis
stratum corneum – keratinized – waterproof sloughs off cells are dead
stratum lucidum – only in thick skin – soles of feet and palms of hands – cells are dead here
stratum granulosum – keratinization begins here
stratum spinosum – tension resisting bundles of pre-keratin filaments
stratum basale – actively mitotic stem cells
Sweat Glands
sudiferous – secrete sweat into and through the glands duct system to the skin surface
Oil Glands
sebaceous – oil glands that secrete sebum to the skin and hair. Help prevent from drying out.
Skin Cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell carcinoma
Melanoma
Diaphysis
The shaft
Epiphysis
Bone ends covered with an articular surface
Endosteum
Covers internal bone surface – just like periosteum but inside
Periosteum
white double layered membrane covering the external bone surface
2 layers of periosteum
Fibrous Layer – Outer layer dense irregular CT
Osteogenic Layer – Inner layer containing osteoblasts (which secrete bone matrix, Osteoclast (bone destroying cells) and Osteogenic stem cells (give rise to osteoblasts)
Lamella
Each individual Matrix tube
Osteon
the structural and functional unit of compact bone
Canaliculi
connect all the osteocytes together to deliver nutrients
Intramembranous ossification
forms the cranial bones of the skull. Bones develop from fibrous membranes
endochondral ossification
forms all bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull bones except the clavicles. They develop form cartilage
PTH
activates osteoclasts – breaks down to raise blood calcium levels
Calcitonin
helps to lower blood calcium levels by having bones reabsorb calcium
The skeleton
206 bones divided into 2 groups
Axial
Includes bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage
Appendicular
upper and lower limbs and girdles
pectoral girdle
clavicle and scapula
pelvic girdle
2 coxal (hip) bones
axial – cervical vertebrae
C1 – Atlas
C2 – Axis (dens)
Appendicular – Forearm
Radius
Ulna Olecranon process (elbow)
Hyoid Bone
Unique because it does not articulate with any other bone inthe body
Synarthroses
Immoveable joints – ex/ sutures, gomphoses (fibrous joints)
Synchondroses
(cartilaginous) – also immoveable
Amphiarthroses
slightly moveable ex) syndesmoses (fibrous) symphesis (cartilaginous)
Diarthroses
Freely moveable joints ex) ball and socket, hinge joints, pivot, plane, saddle (synovial)
flexion
decrease the angle of a joint (contracting the biceps in the arm)
extension
increase the angle of a joint (triceps contracting as teh elbow is extending)
adduction
limbs move away from the midline of the body
abduction
limb moves toward the midline of the body
Bursae
fibrous sac containing synovial fluid located between the bones and tendons to reduce friction during movement
tendon sheath
elongated bursae – wraps completely around the tendon
3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
smooth muscle tissue
not striated, involuntary, visceral
cardiac muscle tissue
striated, involuntary, branched, intercalated disks
skeletal muscle tissue
striated voluntary
Perimysium and Fasicles
within each skeletal muscle the muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles (bundles) that resemble bundles of sticks
perimysium
surrounding each fasicle is a layer of fibrous connective tissue called perimysium
Acetylcholine (ACh)
neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction, depolarizes the muscle cell
troponin
calcium binding protien of the thin filament
tropomyosin
covers myosin binding site on actin
actin
thin filaments, I band, light colored
myosin
thick filaments, A band, dark colored
sarcoplasmic reticulum
stores calcium and releases it on demand
cross bridge
when myosin heads pull thin filaments in toward the center of the sarcomere (A band); i.e. the sliding filament theory
motor unit
the motor neuron and all the muscles it supplies
A band
shortens when the muscle contracts
what happens when calcium shows up?
contraction
muscle insertion
attached to moveable bone
muscle origin
attached to immoveable bone
neurons
nerve cells
neuroglia
nerve supporting cells
astrocytes (CNS)
mainatin the environment
oligodendrites (CNS)
make the myelin sheath
microglia (CNS)
Phagocytosis
ependymal cells (CNS)
lines cavities produces CSF
Satellite cells (PNS)
maintain the environment
Schwann cells (PNS)
make the myelin sheath
Factors the increase nerve conduction
Myelin Sheath increase the velocity of an action potential
Diameter of the axon – bigger is faster
Temperature – hotter is faster
Action Potential
Graded potential is below threshold
When NA+ enters cell – depolarization occurs
When K+ exits teh cell repolarization occurs
K+ continues to exit the cell and it becomes hyperpolarized
Sodium potasium pump brings it back to RMP. It is an active transport process because it requires ATP to function.
Cerebrum
2 cerebral hemispheres and 2 lateral ventricles
Diancephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus and 3rd ventricle
Brain Stem
midbrain (cerebral aqueduct), pons and medulla oblongota (both are associated with teh 4th ventricle
Cerebellum
4th ventricle
medulla oblongata
vital reflex center – heart rate, respiration – a back up for the hypothalamus which is the autonomic nervous system control center.
Meninges
Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater
Blood Brain Barrier
semi-permeable membrane – alcohol and some lipid solubles go through it. Tight junctions – hard to permeate
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Chroroid Plexuses hang from the roofs of the ventricles to produce it.
Functions of CSF
Bouyancy – forms a liquid cushion
nourishes the brain and spinal cord
Location of CSF
Ventricles
central canal of the spinal cord
subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord
Photoreceptors
respond to light
thermoreceptors
respond to temp
chemoreceptors
respond to blood pressure
Reflex Arc Pathway
1. receptor – site of stimulus
2. sensory neuron – afferent dorsal root
integration center – brain and interneurons in the spinal cord
3. integration center
4. Motor Neuron
5. Effector – Muscle or Gland
Cranial and Spinal nerves
7, 9, 10 Taste food going in
VII – facial nerve
IX – glossopharangeal nerve
X – vagus nerve – motor and sensory – taste; ANS to cardiac and digestive organs and glands of the ventral body cavity
Cranial and Spinal nerves
3, 4, and 6 make eyes do tricks
III – Oculomotor
IV – Trochlear
VI – Abducens
Major spinal nerves associated with nerve plexuses
Phrenic – diaphragm
Radial – arm
femoral – abdominal wall and thigh
Sciatic – gluteal region and lower leg
2 divisions of the ANS
Somatic – Skeletal Muscle
ANS – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
2 regions of ANS – parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Rest and Digest
Increase GI Motility
Craniosacral Division
Receptors pre and post ganglion are Cholinergic (acetylcholine)
Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or Flight
Increased heart rate
thoracolumbar division
receptor is ACh preganglion and NE postganglion
Post is Adrenergic – Norepinepherine
Vision
2 types of receptors
Rods
Cones
Rods
Dim light – shades of gray
Cones
for color detail
Visual Pathway
1. Photoreceptor cells (rods/cones)
2. Bipolar Cells
3. Ganglion Cells
4. Axon of ganglion cell exits
5. Optic Disk
6. Optic Nerve
7. Optic Chiasma
8. Optic Tract
9. Thalamus
10. Occipital Lobe
lens
accomodation for vision – ciliary muscles contract to bulge the lens
iris
allows the pupil to constrict or dilate
cornea
bends light entering the eye
Laters of the eye: 3 tunics
fibrous – sclera and cornea
Vascular – choroid, iris, and ciliary body
Sensory – retina
Hearing structures – middle ear
tympanic membrane
malleus, Incus, Stapes, (ear ossicles)
Pharyngotympanic Tube/Auditory Tube
Equilibrium
Inner ear – Cranial Nerve VIII
Static Equilibrium
detected in maculae in vestibule of inner ear
Dynamic Equilibrium
detected in crista ampularis in semicircular canals