BIO 210 – FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Anatomy
the study of structure

Physiology
the study of function

Metabolism
all the chemical reactions that happen in our body cells

Catabolism
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones. Catabolic reaction

Anabolism
The building up of complex molecules from simpler ones

Levels of Structural Organization
Atom (chemical), Molecule (chemical), Cell tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism

Homeostasis
The maintenance of the internal environment regardless of external conditions

Negative feedback mechanism
Most feedback mechanisms are this type – regulating body temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose

Cranial Cavity
Brain and spinal cord

vertebral cavity
spinal cord

thoracic cavity
heart and lungs

abdominopelvic cavity
stoach digestive organs

parietal membrane
lines cavity wall

visceral membrane
lines the organs surface

ATP
a form of energy used by all reactions in cells. Made in the mitochondria

4 elements that make up 96% of the human body
Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen

atomic number
number of protons. Always the same as the number of electrons

Atomic mass
decimal number – number of protons and neutrons together – if you subtract the protons you get the number of neutrons

ionic bonds
the transfer of one or more electrons

anion
negative charge – gains one electron

cation
positive charge – loses one electron

covalent bond
shared electrons

2 types of covalent bonds
Polar – unequal sharing of electrons
Nonpolar – equal sharing of electrons

PH
Acid base concentration – homeostasis of acid base balance is regulated by chemicals called buffers

buffers
acccept hydrogen ions when PH is high and donates when the PH is low

Carbohydrates – organic compound
fructose, glycogen

Protiens – organic compound
amino acids and enzymes

Lipids – organic compound
triglycerides, cholesterol

Nucleic acids – organic compound
DNA, RNA

DNA nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (AGCT)

RNA nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil (AGSU)

Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer composed of hydrophilic (phosphate) heads and hydrophobic (lipid) tails

Resting membrane potential
maintained by sodium potassium pump (active transport) – takes 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in

K+ Potassium
10 times higher inside the cell – major intracellular cation

Na+ Sodium
10 times higher outside the cell – major extracellular cation

passive transport – osmosis
Movement of water. Water follows salt, thats what makes it move

Hypotonic solution
cells lyse/burst

Isotonic solution
no change

Hypertonic solution
cell shrink

cell cycle
before a cell can divide, it’s DNA has to be replicated exactly

3 stages of interphase
G1 – Growth and metabolism
S – DNA replication
G2 – Preparation for division

Cell Division – Mitosis
4 Phases
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Prophase
chromosomes appear

Metaphase
chromosomes cluster in the middle

Anaphase
daughter chromosomes appear

Telophase
identical sets of chromosomes at opposite poles; cleavage furrow

Cytokinesis
complete division of the cell

Protein synthesis – Transcription
DNA’s information is encoded by a codon in mRNA. Happens in the nucleus

Protein synthesis – Translation
Information carried by the mRNAis decoded by an anticodon and used to assemble polypeptides. Happens in the cytosol/ribosome

Tissues
Groups of cells similar in structure that perform a specific function

Epithelial Tissue
a sheet of cells that cover a body surface or lines a cavity

Connective Tissue (CT)
CT Proper – fibroblasts
Cartilage – chondrocytes
Bone – Osteocytes
Blood – erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets

Muscle tissue
skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
smooth muscle

nervous tissue
neurons
neuroglia

Glandular epithelia – Endocrine
ductless glands that secrete directly into the bloodstream. Product does not leave the body (hormones)

Glandular epithelia – exocrine
secrete their products through ducts onto body surfaces – the EXit the body. Sebaceous (oil) glands nd sudiferous (sweat) glands

3 regions of the skin
epidermis (outermost)
dermis (vascular layer)
hypodermis – subcutaneous

5 cell layers of the epidermis
stratum corneum – keratinized – waterproof sloughs off cells are dead
stratum lucidum – only in thick skin – soles of feet and palms of hands – cells are dead here
stratum granulosum – keratinization begins here
stratum spinosum – tension resisting bundles of pre-keratin filaments
stratum basale – actively mitotic stem cells

Sweat Glands
sudiferous – secrete sweat into and through the glands duct system to the skin surface

Oil Glands
sebaceous – oil glands that secrete sebum to the skin and hair. Help prevent from drying out.

Skin Cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell carcinoma
Melanoma

Diaphysis
The shaft

Epiphysis
Bone ends covered with an articular surface

Endosteum
Covers internal bone surface – just like periosteum but inside

Periosteum
white double layered membrane covering the external bone surface

2 layers of periosteum
Fibrous Layer – Outer layer dense irregular CT
Osteogenic Layer – Inner layer containing osteoblasts (which secrete bone matrix, Osteoclast (bone destroying cells) and Osteogenic stem cells (give rise to osteoblasts)

Lamella
Each individual Matrix tube

Osteon
the structural and functional unit of compact bone

Canaliculi
connect all the osteocytes together to deliver nutrients

Intramembranous ossification
forms the cranial bones of the skull. Bones develop from fibrous membranes

endochondral ossification
forms all bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull bones except the clavicles. They develop form cartilage

PTH
activates osteoclasts – breaks down to raise blood calcium levels

Calcitonin
helps to lower blood calcium levels by having bones reabsorb calcium

The skeleton
206 bones divided into 2 groups

Axial
Includes bones of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage

Appendicular
upper and lower limbs and girdles

pectoral girdle
clavicle and scapula

pelvic girdle
2 coxal (hip) bones

axial – cervical vertebrae
C1 – Atlas
C2 – Axis (dens)

Appendicular – Forearm
Radius
Ulna Olecranon process (elbow)

Hyoid Bone
Unique because it does not articulate with any other bone inthe body

Synarthroses
Immoveable joints – ex/ sutures, gomphoses (fibrous joints)

Synchondroses
(cartilaginous) – also immoveable

Amphiarthroses
slightly moveable ex) syndesmoses (fibrous) symphesis (cartilaginous)

Diarthroses
Freely moveable joints ex) ball and socket, hinge joints, pivot, plane, saddle (synovial)

flexion
decrease the angle of a joint (contracting the biceps in the arm)

extension
increase the angle of a joint (triceps contracting as teh elbow is extending)

adduction
limbs move away from the midline of the body

abduction
limb moves toward the midline of the body

Bursae
fibrous sac containing synovial fluid located between the bones and tendons to reduce friction during movement

tendon sheath
elongated bursae – wraps completely around the tendon

3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal
cardiac
smooth

smooth muscle tissue
not striated, involuntary, visceral

cardiac muscle tissue
striated, involuntary, branched, intercalated disks

skeletal muscle tissue
striated voluntary

Perimysium and Fasicles
within each skeletal muscle the muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles (bundles) that resemble bundles of sticks

perimysium
surrounding each fasicle is a layer of fibrous connective tissue called perimysium

Acetylcholine (ACh)
neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction, depolarizes the muscle cell

troponin
calcium binding protien of the thin filament

tropomyosin
covers myosin binding site on actin

actin
thin filaments, I band, light colored

myosin
thick filaments, A band, dark colored

sarcoplasmic reticulum
stores calcium and releases it on demand

cross bridge
when myosin heads pull thin filaments in toward the center of the sarcomere (A band); i.e. the sliding filament theory

motor unit
the motor neuron and all the muscles it supplies

A band
shortens when the muscle contracts

what happens when calcium shows up?
contraction

muscle insertion
attached to moveable bone

muscle origin
attached to immoveable bone

neurons
nerve cells

neuroglia
nerve supporting cells

astrocytes (CNS)
mainatin the environment

oligodendrites (CNS)
make the myelin sheath

microglia (CNS)
Phagocytosis

ependymal cells (CNS)
lines cavities produces CSF

Satellite cells (PNS)
maintain the environment

Schwann cells (PNS)
make the myelin sheath

Factors the increase nerve conduction
Myelin Sheath increase the velocity of an action potential
Diameter of the axon – bigger is faster
Temperature – hotter is faster

Action Potential
Graded potential is below threshold
When NA+ enters cell – depolarization occurs
When K+ exits teh cell repolarization occurs
K+ continues to exit the cell and it becomes hyperpolarized
Sodium potasium pump brings it back to RMP. It is an active transport process because it requires ATP to function.

Cerebrum
2 cerebral hemispheres and 2 lateral ventricles

Diancephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus and 3rd ventricle

Brain Stem
midbrain (cerebral aqueduct), pons and medulla oblongota (both are associated with teh 4th ventricle

Cerebellum
4th ventricle

medulla oblongata
vital reflex center – heart rate, respiration – a back up for the hypothalamus which is the autonomic nervous system control center.

Meninges
Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater

Blood Brain Barrier
semi-permeable membrane – alcohol and some lipid solubles go through it. Tight junctions – hard to permeate

Cerebrospinal Fluid
Chroroid Plexuses hang from the roofs of the ventricles to produce it.

Functions of CSF
Bouyancy – forms a liquid cushion
nourishes the brain and spinal cord

Location of CSF
Ventricles
central canal of the spinal cord
subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord

Photoreceptors
respond to light

thermoreceptors
respond to temp

chemoreceptors
respond to blood pressure

Reflex Arc Pathway
1. receptor – site of stimulus
2. sensory neuron – afferent dorsal root
integration center – brain and interneurons in the spinal cord
3. integration center
4. Motor Neuron
5. Effector – Muscle or Gland

Cranial and Spinal nerves
7, 9, 10 Taste food going in
VII – facial nerve
IX – glossopharangeal nerve
X – vagus nerve – motor and sensory – taste; ANS to cardiac and digestive organs and glands of the ventral body cavity

Cranial and Spinal nerves
3, 4, and 6 make eyes do tricks
III – Oculomotor
IV – Trochlear
VI – Abducens

Major spinal nerves associated with nerve plexuses
Phrenic – diaphragm
Radial – arm
femoral – abdominal wall and thigh
Sciatic – gluteal region and lower leg

2 divisions of the ANS
Somatic – Skeletal Muscle
ANS – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
2 regions of ANS – parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Rest and Digest
Increase GI Motility
Craniosacral Division
Receptors pre and post ganglion are Cholinergic (acetylcholine)

Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or Flight
Increased heart rate
thoracolumbar division
receptor is ACh preganglion and NE postganglion
Post is Adrenergic – Norepinepherine

Vision
2 types of receptors
Rods
Cones

Rods
Dim light – shades of gray

Cones
for color detail

Visual Pathway
1. Photoreceptor cells (rods/cones)
2. Bipolar Cells
3. Ganglion Cells
4. Axon of ganglion cell exits
5. Optic Disk
6. Optic Nerve
7. Optic Chiasma
8. Optic Tract
9. Thalamus
10. Occipital Lobe

lens
accomodation for vision – ciliary muscles contract to bulge the lens

iris
allows the pupil to constrict or dilate

cornea
bends light entering the eye

Laters of the eye: 3 tunics
fibrous – sclera and cornea
Vascular – choroid, iris, and ciliary body
Sensory – retina

Hearing structures – middle ear
tympanic membrane
malleus, Incus, Stapes, (ear ossicles)
Pharyngotympanic Tube/Auditory Tube

Equilibrium
Inner ear – Cranial Nerve VIII

Static Equilibrium
detected in maculae in vestibule of inner ear

Dynamic Equilibrium
detected in crista ampularis in semicircular canals