Bio 111 P1

Science is
both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity encompassing observation, description, experimentation, and explanation of natural phenomena
Superstitions
Irrational beliefs that actions do not logically related to a course of events influence its outcome
To be useful in the scientific method, an observation must be
measurable
Empirical results
are based on observation
To be useful, a hypothesis will
generate a testable prediction
The placebo effect
frequently observed phenomenon that people tend to respond favorably to any treatment
What is a double blind test?
When both the researches and test subjects have no idea who is receiving the drug and placebo.
controlled experiments is when
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant
If a researcher uses the same experimental setup as in another study, but with different research subjects, the process is considered
Replication
An independent variable
Can cause a change in a dependent variable
Statistical methods made it possible to
Determine how likely it is that certain results have occurred by chance
Anecdotal evidence
Can seem to reveal links between two phenomena, but the links do not actually exist
What is a theory?
A hypothesis that has been established on the basis of large amounts of observational and experimental data
What does empirical mean, and how does it relate to the study of biology?
Knowledge gathered through observation and experiments that are rational, testable and repeatable.
An especially important feature of the scientific method is that its steps are self correcting. What does self correcting mean in the context?
It means that if a hypothesis is not supported by the experimental results, it can be revised, new predictions made and these predictions tested. Experiments can also be repeated many times by many different scientists and change as they go along.
If a phenomenon cannot be measured,
it cannot be tested using the scientific method
Double blind procedure
gets rid of variables
What does it mean to be in a randomized, controlled, double blind study?
Randomized: Participants are randomly selected to be in either the experimental or control group

Controlled: There is a controlled group in which all variables are the same as the experimental group

Double blind: Neither the experimenter and the testing group knows who is part of the experimental group and control group

What type of experimental design helps us eliminate biases?
Randomized, controlled, double blind experiment