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BIC 002 Chapter 11-12

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Which of the following is the best definition for recombinant DNA?
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DNA that includes pieces from two different sources
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Which of these is a genetically modified organism?
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an organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means
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Which of the following best defines the term transgenic organism?
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an organism containing a gene from another species
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The world’s first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was ______.
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humulin
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A vaccine works by ______.
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stimulating the immune system to develop lasting defenses
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Transgenic animals are currently used ______.
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to produce potentially useful proteins
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Which of these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?
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plasmids
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Of these steps, which occurs first in the production of a recombinant plasmid?
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isolation of a plasmid from a bacterium
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Of these steps, which one occurs earliest in the process of producing recombinant DNA?
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The same restriction enzyme is used to isolate the gene of interest and to cut the plasmid DNA.
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When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein, the ______.
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desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is taken up by the bacterium
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The process of making multiple copies of a gene by inserting it into a host genome and culturing the host is an example of ______.
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gene cloning
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A collection of cloned DNA fragments that includes an organism’s entire genome is called a ______.
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genomic library
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Nucleic acid probes are used to ______.
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find a specific nucleotide sequence
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Restriction enzymes are obtained from ______.
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bacteria
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“Sticky ends” are produced as a result of the action of ______.
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a restriction enzyme
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“Sticky ends” are ______.
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single-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNA
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A DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads -ATTCG will bind with another DNA fragment with a sticky end that reads ______.
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TAAGC-
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Which enzyme is used to bind DNA fragments together?
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DNA ligase
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Of the following, which is the last step in the production of a recombinant DNA plasmid?
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using DNA ligase to join DNA fragments
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You are attempting to link an individual to a crime. The only evidence you have is a tiny drop of blood. How can you use this drop of blood to make the association?
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You can use PCR to increase the amount of DNA available for restriction fragment analysis.
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What name is given to a region of DNA that varies from person to person?
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genetic marker
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Cutting DNA with a particular restriction enzyme produces DNA fragments that can be separated by ______.
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gel electrophoresis
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To make restriction fragments, a DNA sample is treated with ______.
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restriction enzymes
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Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of differences in their ______.
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length
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STR analysis is a DNA profiling technique that makes use of the fact that different people have
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different numbers of repeats of short DNA sequences at certain sites in the genome.
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The scientific field that studies complete sets of genes is called ______.
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genomics
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The human genome contains approximately ______ genes.
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21,000
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Approximately what percentage of the human genome consists of noncoding DNA?
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98%
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The Human Genome Project has the potential to ______.
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play a role in all of the choices listed here
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Which of these statements can be logically inferred from the amount of DNA shared by chimpanzees and humans?
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Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.
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To find the nucleotide sequence of human chromosomes, chromosomes had to be digested into small fragments and then ______.
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cloned and sequenced
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What technique is most commonly used to sequence entire genomes?
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the whole-genome shotgun method
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The study of the full protein sets that genomes encode is _____.
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proteomics
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In human gene therapy,
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normal versions of genes are transferred to patients who carry a mutated allele.
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Genetically modifying human ______ cells may directly affect future generations.
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gametic
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The possibility that Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan spread an unusual chromosome to nearly 16 million men living today resulted from studies of _____.
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the Y chromosome
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At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?
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cellular differentiation
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The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is ______.
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gene expression
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In bacteria, what name is given to a cluster of genes with related functions, along with their DNA control sequences?
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operon
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Bacterial RNA polymerase binds to the ______. regulatory gene proto-oncogene promoter operator
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promoter
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In prokaryotes, the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of the ______.
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operon
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In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch.
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operator
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Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator?
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repressor
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Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator.
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RNA polymerase
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What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli?
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the presence of lactose
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While examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 functional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cell ______.
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came from a normal human female
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What is the first level of control of eukaryotic gene transcription?
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DNA packing and unpacking
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Male tortoiseshell cats ______.
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are likely to be exceedingly rare and very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY
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Which of these plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
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attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
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In eukaryotic cells, repressor proteins inhibit transcription by binding to ______.
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silencers
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Introns are ______.
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noncoding DNA sequences
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Which of these is a type of post-transcriptional regulation
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alteration of proteins
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How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides?
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There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.
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Cells communicate with one another via ______.
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signal transduction pathways
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The “master control genes” that regulate other genes, which determine what body parts will develop in which locations, are called ______.
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homeotic genes
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Which of these is most likely to cause the development of a six-legged frog?
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mutation of homeotic genes
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Homeotic genes ______.
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are evidence of the common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms
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Which of these techniques could tell you how gene expression differs between individuals with and without cystic fibrosis?
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DNA microarray
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How is it that the cells in different body tissues are able to perform different functions?
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The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression.
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Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.
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the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans restocking populations of endangered animals
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What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
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Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
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What name is given to a gene that causes cancer?
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oncogene
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Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______.
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cell division
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Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers; thus, it can be said that ______.
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predisposition to these cancers is inherited
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Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as a(n) ______.
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tumor-suppressor gene
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Which risk factors are associated with cancer of the colon and rectum?
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dietary fat
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______ is(are) responsible for more cancers than any other carcinogen.
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Tobacco
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More people die of ______ cancer than of any other cancer.
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lung
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Which of these lifestyle choices will increase cancer risk?
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a diet low in plant fiber
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DNA and RNA are polymers composed of ______ monomers.
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nucleotide
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Who discovered the structure of DNA?
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Watson and Crick
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Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from ______.
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X-ray crystallography studies
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What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?
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hydrogen
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After replication, ______.
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each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
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Which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis?
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RNA polymerase
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The region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the ______.
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promoter
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The correct sequence of events occurring during transcription is ______.
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initiation, elongation, termination
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The absence of a terminator in transcription will result in ______.
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the production of a longer RNA molecule
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What protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes?
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a cap and tail
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The expressed (coding) regions of eukaryotic genes are called ______.
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exons
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The DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon ______.
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AGU
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Where is translation accomplished?
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ribosomes
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During translation, what is the correct order of events that occur as an amino acid is added?
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codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation
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Peptide bonds form between ______.
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amino acids
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A mutation within a gene that will insert a premature stop codon in mRNA would ______.
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result in a shortened polypeptide chain
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What is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message?
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one
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What is the ultimate source of all diversity?
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mutation
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Mad cow disease is caused by
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infectious proteins called prions.
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How can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell
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via a lysogenic cycle
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A(n) ______ is to bacteria as a ______ is to animal cells.
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prophage… provirus
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HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) must use its own ______
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reverse transcriptase