basics – Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Maddison Bailey
QuestionAnswer
Functions of the nervous systemSensory: detects change tot he internal and external environment (ex: you see a red light)
Integration: processes sensory input (ex: red light means stop)
Motor: causes a response, activates muscles and glands (ex: muscle moves foot to the brake)
Central Nervous System
(CNS)
Composed of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS)
Composed of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord
Somatic Nervous SystemUnder conscious control (ex: skeletal muscles)
Autonomic Nervous SystemUnder unconscious control (ex: smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, glands)
Sympathetic Nervous SystemPrepares the body for activity (ex: "fight or flight")
Parasympathetic Nervous SystemOversees digestion and gland function (ex: "rest and digest")
Astrocytes (neuroglia)

Provide support, regulate nutrients from capillaries, "clean up" excess neurotransmitters and ions. The nervous system's version of scar tissue.
Microglia (neuroglia)

Phagocytize bacteria cells and dead neurons.
Ependyma (neuroglia)

Lines cavities of the brain and spinal cord, forms a semipermeable barrier between cerebrospinal fluid and brain.
Obgodendrocytes (neuroglia)

Provide support to axons and produce Myelin sheath.
Neurons

Conduct impulses
Dendrites

Receive stimuli
Axon

Transmits nerve impulses from the cell body
Myelin sheath

Increases the speed of impulse transmission
Node of Ranvier

Gaps in the Myelin sheath
MultipolarHave 3 or more processes
BipolarHave 2 processes
UnipolarHave 1 process that divides into 2 branches
Sensory neuronConducts impulses from receptors to CNS
Motor neuronConducts impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles or glands)
InterneuronFound primarily in CNS, links sensory and motor neurons

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