Auburn History Test 1-part 2

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Ahriman (Angra Mainyu)
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malevolent diety (god) independent and co-eternal with Ahuramazda; Zoroaster saw him as the force of disorder, evil thoughts and destructive spirit; some viewed Ahuramazda and Angra Mainyu as in a cosmic battle
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Zarathustra
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aka..Zoroaster; thinker and preacher that authored key religious texts that were later combined into a sacred text, the Avesta; taught devotion to Ahuramazda and people had to choose between forces of order and disorder and possessed free will; there would be a day of reckoning to determine everyone’s eternal fate
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Dravidian
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Southern India; relates to the language or people in that area; people of Harrapa may be their ancestors
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Harappan
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first civilization in India in the Bronze Age; also know as Indus Valley civilization ; named for the river and city (Harrapa) where ruins were found; more than twice as large as ancient Egypt and Sumer; literate civilization nut have not been able to decipher the symbols; over 300 cities
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Aryan
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dominant people in north India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization; spoke an early form of Sanskrit
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raja
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chief or head of the Aryan tribe; led followers in battle and ruled in peacetime; elected chief for his military skills
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Sanskrit
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sacred tongue of ancient India; Vedas was written in Sanskrit; Indo-European language related to ancient Persian and distantly related to Latin, Greek and English
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Four Vedas
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the 4 holiest books of Hindu religion (Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda,Atharva Veda); one of the oldest books; written in Sanskrit; stories about Hindu gods and instructions for rituals, hymns, prayers, poetry
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castes (Varna)
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a group within the caste system that divided society into 4 hierarchical groups or Varnas (priests, warriors/officials, merchants, peasants/laborers)
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jati
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a Hindu caste within a region; Varnas are all Indian
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patriarchy
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social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and some men are dominant over other men
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Upanishads
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Under Brahmanisms; a collection of texts that record speculations about mystical meanings of sacrificial rites and cosmological question of man’s relationship to the universe; core of Hindu teachings
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Hinduism
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religion that is a guide to life, the goal of which is to reach union with Brahman, the unchanging ultimate reality; 4 steps in the process of reaching Brahman; belief that the Vedas are sacred revelations and a caste system is implied in them
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mysticism
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attempt by an individual to achieve union with a god through sacrificial rituals
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asceticism
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philosophical movement of severe self-discipline and self-denial; meditation on rituals could be same as the physical ritual; saw ritual sacrifices as symbolic gestures with mystical meanings
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Mauryan dynasty
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first major Indian empire founded by Chandragupta; reached peak during King Ashoka who promoted Buddhism
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Bhagavad Gita
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part of the world’s longest ancient epic (Mahabharata); a central text of Hinduism; offers guidance on most serious problem facing a Hindu (how to live in the world and honor dharma and achieve release form the wheel of life; story of spiritual conflict of Arjuna
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Krishna
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Hindu god, was Arjuna’s charioteer in Bhagavad Gita and instructs him on the true meaning of Hinduism
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Jainism
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Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other life; founded by Mahavira
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Mahavira
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key figure of Jainism; son of a chief of a small state and member of warrior class; was a wandering holy man for 12 years and found enlightenment and became a complete soul; founded a discipline of monks; took Brahmanic doctrines of kharma and rebirth and took them in new directions; all objects (animate and inanimate) had souls
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Gautama
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the “Buddha” or “enlightened one”; came from warrior class; preached in local language and not Sanskrit; did not recognize the significance of the Vedas; his message was included in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold path; didn’t use caste system
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Buddhism
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religion founded by Gautama; ignored the caste system; everyone can be included and must follow the eightfold path; optimistic message
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Four Noble Truths
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the Buddha’s message that pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life; suffering and anxiety are caused by human desires and attachments: people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses; and this triumph is made possible by following a simple code of conduct
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Nirvana
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state of a kind of blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation; enter it by achieving liberation and being freed from the cycle of life and death; part of Buddhism
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Mahayana Buddhism
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dynastic cycle
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the theory that Chinese dynasties go through a predictable cycle from early vigor and growth o subsequent decline as administrators became lax and the well-off find ways to avoid paying taxes, cutting state revenues
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Mandate of Heaven
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the theory that heaven gives the King a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interests of the people
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Shang Dynasty
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the first Chinese dynasty to have writing, metalworking, cities and chariots;high god Di; kings played priestly roles
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Zhou Dynasty
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set up a decentralized feudal government structure that evolved over centuries into a multistate system’ came after Shang Dynasty; Book of Documents and Book of Songs document Zhou Dynasty; Mandate of Heaven is part of it
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Han Dynasty
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promoted internal peace by providing relief and lowering land taxes; harsher laws of Qin lifted; strong centralized government remained;
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Liu Pang
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Chinese emperor; founder of Han Dynasty; skillful general; one of two commoners to be emperor
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Wu Ti
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7th Han emperor; ” Martial Emperor”; lasted 54 years; had many foreign wars and expanded territory; Confucian became official philosophy
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silk road
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trade routes across central asia linking china and western eurasia
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An Lushan Rebellion
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was devastating to the Tang Dynasty; after quarrel over control of government with Yang’s brother An Lushan led rebellion that forced the emperor to leave capital and have him execute Yang; peace restored years later with help from turks in suppressing rebellion
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Li Shimin
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second Tang emperor; “Taizong” or “Great Khan”; for a short period he was head of Chinese and Turk empires
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Tang Dynasty
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founded by Li Yuan; high point of traditional Chinese civilization; capital was cultural center of east asia
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Shi Huang Ti
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first emperor of a unified China and the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty; started the building of the Great Wall and Grand Canal; changed title from king to emperor; known for the thousands of life size terra cotta soldiers and horses buried with him to protect him

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