ASVAB Auto and Shop information

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Mixture of Gas and Air (the fuel mixture)
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What does the Internal Combustion engine burn?
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1. Intake 2. Compression 3. Power 4. Exhaust
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What are the 4 strokes that make up a cycle? (in car engine)
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Intake
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This valve opens as the connecting rod pulls the piston down, drawing the gas/air mix into the cylinder
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Compression
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The valves are closed. The connecting rod pushes the piston up, compressing gas/air mix
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Power
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The spar plug ignites the gas/air mix, forcing the piston down. That pushes down on the connecting rod, turning the crankshaft; the crankshaft turns the flywheel, which keeps the engine going
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Exhaust
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The ___ valve opens as the connecting rod moves the piston back up, pushing out the exploded gases. The valves are times, of course, using pus rods attached to the camshaft.
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Inline
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The name for cylinders that are arranged in one row
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V
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The name for cylinders that are arranged in two rows
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Four-stroke, one-cycle engine
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Most people refer to engines as four-cycle engines but this is false; what are they really called?
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Tachometer
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Instrument in a vehicle the measures revolutions per minute; rpm (e.g. when this displays 4,800 rpm, that means the engine is performing 4,800 cycles every minute)
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Fuel must be properly mixed with air and transported within the cylinder at the proper time
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What must happen in order for the cycle to happen at all?
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Carburetors
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___ are used (pre 1990) to mix the fuel and air mechanically. As air moves quickly through this, it creates a vacuum, which draws more and more fuel into the mixture
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Fuel Injectors
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___ have replaced carburetors on newer cars to perform the air/fuel mixture function.
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Fuel Injector
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The ___ acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly in to the engine’s air stream. (In almost all cases it requires an external pump)
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Electronic Fuel Injection computer
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EFI computer stands for ___?
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Determines the amount of fuel entering the engine: receives information from the sensors in the fuel, air, and exhaust system, and from that information, it determines how much fuel the engine needs to operate at optimum levels
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What does the EFI computer do?
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Throttle
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___ is mechanically connected to the carburetor OR ___ is electronically connected to the EFI computer
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Advancing (opening) the throttle causes more fuel to be transferred to the carburetor or the fuel injectors. The accelerator (gas pedal) is connected to the throttle by mechanical linkages. The harder you push on the gas pedal, the farther the throttle is advanced (opened). Thus, more fuel is transported to the carburetor or fuel injectors.
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What does a Throttle do?
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Cooling system
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What does the engine have because of the high temperature at which fuel burns?
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Water Jackets Water Pump Radiator
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What are the 3 components of the engine’s cooling system?
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Water jackets
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These surround the parts of the engine that reach the highest temperatures (engine cooling system)
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Water Pump
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This circulates water through the water jackets (engine cooling system)
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Radiator
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(engine cooling system) While the water circulates, it absorbs heat from the engine and then passes through the ___, where outside air cools the water.
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Antifreeze
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___ (a coolant) raises the boiling point of water (which keeps water from boiling away) and lowers its freezing point (which keeps the system from freezing up during cold weather)
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Antifreeze
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___ is usually mixed with the water in an engine cooling system
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Oil Pump
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A ___ circulates oil through the engine; oil flows through the crankshaft and connecting rods, lubricating it as it goes.
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Friction & Heat
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Lubrication (from the oil pump) reduces ___, which in turn reduces ___.
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Starter
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An electric motor powered by the battery that starts the engine when you turn the key
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Alternator
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This sends an electric current back to the battery to keep the battery charged and also powers the other electronic gadgets on your car when the engine is running
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Ignition system
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This supplies a high-voltage current to the spark plugs to ignite the fuel mixture in the cylinders
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Ignition system
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The ___ system takes the 12-volt current from the battery, steps it up to about 20,000 volts, and then sends the current to the spark plugs
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Coil
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In older cars, this device uses electromagnetic induction to step up the voltage (ignition system)
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Distributer
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After leaving the coil, the current then passes through ___, an electrical/mechanical switching device; controls the timing of the spark-plug discharges (ignition system, older cars)
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Breaker points
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A rotating shaft and a switch within the distributer that routes the current through wires to the spark plugs (ignition system, older cars)
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Condenser
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This absorbs excess current and protects the breaker points from the damage by the high-voltage surge
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Solid-state electronics controlled by a computer
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In modern ignition systems, the distributer, coil, breaker points, and condenser have been replaced by what?
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Computer
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A ___ controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions
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Drive System
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Transfers the power of the engine to the wheels, making them move
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Axle
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The shaft on which the wheels revolve
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Universal Joint
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Allows the axle to move up and down without breaking the drive shaft
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Drive Shaft
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The connecting component that carries torque and transmits rotation
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Gears
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These are located on the axle and allow the vehicle to make turns
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Axle shafts
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These turn the wheels
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Rear-wheel drive Front-wheel drive All-wheel drive (four-wheel drive)
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What are the 3 ways wheels turn on vehicles
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Rear-wheel drive
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The rear wheels push the car. The drive shaft extends from the transmission to the rear axle.
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Front-wheel drive
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The front wheels pull the car. The drive shaft extends from the transmission to the front axle.
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All-wheel drive (four-wheel drive)
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All wheels push and pull the car at the same time. The drive shaft extends from the transmission to both axles.
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Transmission Rear
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The ___ changes the speed of the engine in relation to the speed of the ___ wheels in rear-wheel drive.
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Transmission Front
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The ___ changes the speed of the engine in relation to the speed of the ___ wheels in front-wheel drive.
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Transmission All
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The ___ changes the speed of the engine in relation to the speed of ___ the wheels in all-wheel drive.
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Automatic Manual (stick shift)
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2 types of transmission
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Transmission
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Consists of gears in several combinations so that the amount of torque used can vary according to the needs
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Torque
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The force that produces rotation (of wheels)
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More
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When the terrain is difficult (as in snow), the wheels need ___ torque in order to move.
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Torque Converter
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In an automatic transmission, this automatically varies the amount of torque supplied
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Clutch
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Found in manual transmission, this disconnects the engine from the drive shaft in order to change to a different gear (torque). Also allows the engine to run when the car isn’t moving
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Brake
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Device found on each wheel that applies friction to the wheel to stop its rotation
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Master cylinder Brake lines Brake pedal Drum brakes &/or Disc brakes
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Components of a Brake system
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Brake lines
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Run from the master cylinder, these are filled with brake fluid
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Brake pedal
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This applies pressure to the master cylinder, which sends pressure (and brake fluid) through the break lines.
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Drum Brakes
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In this type of brake, the lines are connected to a hydraulic cylinder on each wheel. This cylinder contains pistons that move outward and force 2 brake shoes against the metal drum that rotates the wheel.
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Disc Brakes
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In this brake system, the master cylinder forces a caliper, containing a piston, with brake shoes on each side, to squeeze against a rotating disc in each wheel, thus stopping the car by using fluid and releasing hot air.
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True
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True or False Most modern cars use both drum brakes and disc brakes
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Drum Brakes
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Brakes usually installed on the rear wheels. Consists of a rotating drum with shoes that expand to rub the inside of a drum
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Disc Brakes
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Brakes usually installed on the front wheels. Uses pads that pinch a rotating disc
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Emissions-control systems
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System placed on cars to prevent pollutants (partially combusted fuel/unburned fuel) from poisoning the atmosphere
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Positive-crankcase ventilation Air-injection system Catalytic converter Exhaust-gas-recirculation system
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Components of Emission-control systems
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Positive-crankcase ventilation
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An old method (still in use) that forces unburned or partially burned fuel back into the cylinder so the fuel can be burned
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Air-injection system
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System that forces air into the engine’s exhaust system to burn unburned or partially burned fuel before the fuel comes out the exhaust pipe
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Catalytic converter
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Oxidizes hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water vapor and carbon dioxide; this system doesn’t control other types of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides
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Exhaust-gas-recirculation system
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Helps control nitrogen-oxide emissions by forcing some of the gases back into the cylinders
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Striking Tools
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Tools that apply driving force to an object
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Hammer Mallet Sledge
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3 Striking tools
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Hammer
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A striking tool that consists of a handle, a head, a face (part of tool that touches the nail or fastener), a claw (to pull nails), and a wedge that attaches the head to the handle.
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Mallet
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A striking tool that is used to strike another tool or to strike a surface without damaging it.
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Sledge
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A striking tool that is used to drive bolts and chisels and to break rock.
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Fastening Tools
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These tools apply fasteners (e.g. screws) to objects
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Stapler Wrenches Screwdrivers Pliers
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4 Fastening tools
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Stapler
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A fastening tool that uses staples as fasteners.
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Wrenches
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A fastening tool that turns nuts and bolts. The bolt fits between the jaws of this tool and the tool turns the bolt. (some have adjustable jaws; can also be used to keep nuts and bolts stationary)
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Open-end wrenches Box wrenches Socket wrenches Torque wrenches Pipe wrenches
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5 types of Wrenches
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Open-end wrenches
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These wrenches have open jaws
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Box wrenches
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These wrenches are closed. (Some have open-end jaws on one end but this type of wrench on the other)
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Socket wrenches
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These wrenches have box-type sockets of varying sizes that can be attached to a handle, which in turn can be attached to an extension.
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Socket wrenches Box wrenches Open-end wrenches
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3 types of wrenches that come in set, standard sizes (either in inches or in mm); they are not interchangeable
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Torque wrenches
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These wrenches apply additional leverage to a fastener. These wrenches look like a socket wrench but have additional internal mechanisms designed to measure and limit the amount of torque (force) being applied.
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Pipe wrenches
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These wrenches have serrated jaws and grip round objects.
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Screwdrivers
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A fastening tool that turns screws
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Standard screwdriver Phillips screwdriver Allen wrench Offset screwdriver
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4 types of Screwdrivers
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Standard screwdriver
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A screwdriver that has a flat blade at one end of the shank (the other end of the shank goes into the handle).
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Phillips screwdriver
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A screwdriver that has a blade shaped like a cross; this blade fits into a cross-shaped Phillips screw head
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Allen wrench
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A screwdriver that fits hexagonal screw heads.
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Offset screwdriver
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A screwdriver that has the shank set at an angle to the blade to allow the tool to be used in cramped spaces; these can have a standard blade, phillips blade, or any number of other blades
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Pliers
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A fastening tool that can be used to fasten and unfasten fasteners, hold objects, and cut material. When the handles are squeezed the jaws of this tool come together
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Long-nose or needle-nose Curved-nose Slip-joint Wrench or vise-grip Cutting
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5 types of Pliers
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Long-nose or needle-nose
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These pliers have tapered jaws that can hold small objects or fit into small spaces
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Curved-nose pliers
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These pliers have curved jaws
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Slip-joint pliers
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These pliers can be adjusted so the handles lock in a certain position
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Wrench or vise-grip pliers
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These pliers have serrated jaws that clamp onto and hold objects of all shapes
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Cutting pliers
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These pliers are used to cut wire
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Cutting Tools
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These tools use sharp blades to cut through metal, wood, or other materials; have teeth
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Fewer
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A saw with ___ teeth is used for rough work, like cutting wood to size.
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More
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A saw with ___ teeth cuts more finely and is used for more delicate work, like sawing joints and lightweight pieces of wood
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Bolt cutters Circle snips Crosscut saw Coping saw Hacksaw Pipe cutters and tube cutters Ripsaw Snips and shears
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8 types of Cutting tools
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Bolt cutters
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A cutting tool; heavy-duty shears the produce enough force when the handles are closed to slice through metal bolts or rods
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Circle snips
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A cutting tool; used to cut curves
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Crosscut saw
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A cutting tool; type of handsaw that cuts AGAINST the grain of the wood; the shape of the teeth and the angle in which they’re set are the main differences in this type of saw
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Coping saw
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A cutting tool; type of handsaw that is used to cut curved lines or shapes
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Hacksaw
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A cutting tool; type of handsaw that is used to cut metal; this saw has an adjustable frame that holds thin blades of varying length in place; a handle is set in one end
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Pipe cutters and tube cutters
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A cutting tool; this tool is used to score and cut metal pipes and tubes
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Ripsaw
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A cutting tool; type of handsaw that cuts WITH the grain of the wood; the shape of the teeth and the angle in which they’re set are the main differences in this type of saws
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Snips and shears
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A cutting tool; this tool has 2 cutting blades that scissor together when the handles close; the blades can be curved or straight
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Drill bits
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Round pieces of steel shaped in a spiral, to create holes; attached to a drill
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Countersink
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A drill bit that enlarges just the surface of a hole so that a screw head can be accommodated
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Auger bits
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Drill bits that have a long deep spiral flute for easy chip removal; length7-10 inches; most commonly used with a brace for drilling holes in wood
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Punches
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A tool that has a sharp end that is placed against the material to be punctured; the other end is struck with a hammer
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Center punch
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Used to mark where a drilled hole is to be placed; this keeps the drill bit in position and prevents the drill from jumping to another part of the material
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Chisels
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Tools made of steel that have a sharp cutting edge; used to chip or cut metal of wood
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Metal-cutting chisel Wood-cutting chisel
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2 types of Chisel
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Metal-cutting chisel
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Chisels that cut metal; usually struck with a mallet to make the cut. 2 different shapes: cold chisel & round chisel
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Cold chisel
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A flat chisel used for cutting metals without using heating torches or forges
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Round chisels
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A metal-cutting chisel used to make circular cuts
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Wood-cutting chisel
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Chisels that cut wood. Some are struck with a mallet; others only require the pressure of your hands
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Socket chisel
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A wood-cutting chisel struck with a mallet not hand
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Butt chisel
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A wood-cutting chisel that has a short blade and is used for in-close work
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Mortising chisel
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A wood-cutting chisel that has a narrow blade made for chiseling out the narrow mortises in joints
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Framing chisel
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A wood-cutting chisel that has a heavy, strong blade meant for rough work
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Filing and Finishing tools
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These tools are used to sharpen the blades of other tools and to smooth the edges of cut metal objects
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Single-cut files Double-cut files Flate files and half-round files Square and round files
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4 types of Files
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Single-cut file
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These files are used for finishing work and sharpening blades
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Double-cut file
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These files are used for rough work
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Flat files and half-round files
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These files are used for general purposes
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Square and round files
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These files fit square and round openings
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Planes
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Type of finishing tool used to prepare wood for final finishing and to fit doors and trip; consists of a handle, knob, frame, sole, and a mouth
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Bench Planes
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Used to smooth surfaces (longer planes give a more uniform surface by shaving off a portion of the wood
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Clamping Tools
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A device used to hold or fasten objects securely so they won’t move while working on them
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Pliers Vises Clamps
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3 types of Clamping tools
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Pliers
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A clamping tool that can be used to hold objects while you’re working on them
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Vises
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A clamping tool that holds material white it is being sawed, drilled, or glued
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Bench vise Pipe vise Handscrew vise
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3 types of Vises (clamping tools)
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Bench vise
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A vise that has large, rough jaws that keep the material form slipping
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Pipe vise
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A vise that holds round trip or pipes
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Handscrew vise
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A vise that has 2 hard wooden jaws connected by 2 long screws. The screws are tightened to bring the jaws of the vise together
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Clamps
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A clamping tool use when a vise wont work. These connect only to the items being worked with. (e.g. C-clamps)
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Tape rules Rigid steel rules Folding rules Calipers Depth gauges Thickness guages Thread gauges Wire guages
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Types of measuring tools
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Calipers
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A measuring tool used for very exact and small measurements. These can be used with a rule to measure diameter; the legs of this tool curve IN to measure OUTSIDE curves and curve OUT to measure INSIDE curves.
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Depth Gauges
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A measuring device used to measure the depth of holes
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Thickness Gauges
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A measuring device used to measure the thickness of small opening
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Thread Gauges
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A measuring device that measures the number of threads per inch in threaded fasteners
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Wire Gauges
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A measuring device that measures the thickness of wire
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Square
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A tool used to check the trueness (accuracy) of an angle; has 2 arms, called the Blade and the Tongue, that meet at a right angle
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Sliding T-bevel
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A tool used for setting and transferring angles. The handle is usually made of wood or plastic and is connected to a metal blade with a thumbscrew or wing nut. The blade pivots and can be locked at any angle by loosening or tightening the thumbscrew.
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Levels
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A tool that shows whether a surface is true; has 1 or more small tubes filled with liquid and an air bubble
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Plumb bob
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A heavy weight that is suspended from a line; it indicates vertical trueness
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Penny System
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The way nail length is measured; abbreviated with a d. (a ten-penny nail is a 10d nail)
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Spikes
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Nails that are larger than 20-penny. These are measured in inches
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Brads & finishing nails Common nails Double-headed nails
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3 types of Nails
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Brads and finishing nails
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These nails have heads that are made to fit flush with or slightly below the surface of the wood
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Common nails
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These nails are the most commonly used nails
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Double-headed nails
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These nails have 2 heads, one lower than the other, and a point on the other end. The nail is driven to the lower head but can be pulled out of the material because of the remaining higher head. Used for temporary construction that will be taken apart
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Fasteners
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Nails, screws, and bolts are ___ ?
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Wood screws
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Screws that are used to fasten wood
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Lag screws
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Screws that have square- or hexagon-shaped heads
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Bolts
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Fasteners that have flat ends and don’t thread into wood. Held in place by a nut (which is what actually screws into the threads) and washer.
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Machine screws
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These screws are used to fasten metal parts, sometimes used with nuts; come in various lengths and widths and have a wide variety of heads
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Cap nuts
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Nuts that are rounded and smooth
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Stop nuts
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Nuts that prevent the screw or bolt from coming loose
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Wing nuts
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Nut that have flanges on each side so they can be tightened by hand
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Washers
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Prevent damage to the surface of material by preventing the bolt head from digging into the material
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Flat washers
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Most common type of washer; a simple ring of flat metal
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Shake-proof washers
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Washers that have teeth to prevent them from skipping
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Split-lock washers
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Washers that have 2 end that dig into the nut and the material to keep the screw from slipping out
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Rivets
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Commonly used to fasten metal parts together especially when weld is insufficient; come in a variety of lengths, diameters, and shapes. Material should match the material being fastened
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Bucking bar
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Used to drive standard rivets
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Pop rivets
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Type of rivet that can be driven when only one side of a joint is accessible

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