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Astronomy 17-19

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Both Jupiter and Saturn 1. All of these 2. emit more energy than they absorb from the sun. 3. have belt and zone circulation. 4. have rings. 5. have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors.
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1. All of these
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Belt and zone circulation 1. has been observed only on Jupiter. 2. is caused by rising and sinking gases. 3. explains the formation of Cassini’s division. 4. is more obvious on Saturn than on Jupiter. 5. is caused by the planet’s magnetic field.
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2. is caused by rising and sinking gases.
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Jupiter does not have 1. crustal plates on its surface. 2. a hot interior. 3. convection occuring in its atmosphere. 4. a dynamo effect. 5. any rings
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1. crustal plates on its surface.
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The particles in Jupiter’s ring must be 1. pieces of captured comets. 2. silicate particles. 3. material from eruptions of volcanoes on Io. 4. particles of ices. 5. metallic particles.
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2. silicate particles.
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In what way is the rocky material of Jupiter’s core different from the rocks found on Earth? 1. It is composed of iron and nickel because this material will settle to the core. 2. It is much cooler because Jupiter is farther from the sun. 3. It is composed entirely of ices that have frozen into a large rock-like structure. 4. It is much hotter and more dense because of the extreme pressure at the core of Jupiter. 5. It contains more liquid water.
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4. It is much hotter and more dense because of the extreme pressure at the core of Jupiter.
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The excess heat produced by Jupiter and Saturn is the result of 1. nuclear reactions in their liquid metallic hydrogen cores. 2. the large number of meteorite and comet impacts that occur each year. 3. radioactive decay. 4. hot molten lava rising to the surface. 5. the continual slow contraction of each planet.
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5. the continual slow contraction of each planet.
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The graph below indicates the temperature of Saturn’s atmosphere as a function of distance from the upper cloud layer. Water will condence to form droplets at a temperature of approximately 270 K in the atmosphere of Saturn. At what distance from the upper cloud layer will clouds of water vapor form? 1. 150 km 2. −150 km 3. 0 km 4. −250 km 5. 250 km
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4. −250 km
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Saturn’s atmosphere is 1. hazy above the clouds. 2. All of these 3. more brightly marked than Jupiter’s. 4. None of these 5. rich in free oxygen.
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1. hazy above the clouds.
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Saturn’s rings are 1. composed of ice particles. 2. in the plane of the planet’s equator. 3. None of these 4. within the planet’s Roche limit. 5. All of these
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5. All of these
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Which of the following in Saturn’s rings is/are produced by the gravitational interaction of Mimas with the particles in the rings and appears as a large gap in the rings? 1. the Io torus 2. spokes 3. bending waves 4. Cassini’s division 5. spiral density waves
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4. Cassini’s division
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The rotation of Uranus is peculiar in that 1. it is much faster than is typical for Jovian planets. 2. it cannot be measured because Uranus has no surface features. 3. the equator rotates much faster than the poles. 4. the axis is nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit. 5. it is much slower than is typical for Jovian planets.
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4. the axis is nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit.
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The rings of Uranus were discovered 1. as Uranus and the rings passed behind Jupiter. 2. during an eclipse of Uranus by the rings. 3. during an occulation of a star. 4. by Voyager 1. 5. during an eclipse of one of the moons by the rings.
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3. during an occulation of a star.
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The narrowness of the rings of Uranus and Neptune is believed to be caused by 1. a spiral density wave which confines them. 2. gravitational interactions between ring particles. 3. small shephard moons that orbit near the rings. 4. the smaller mass of Uranus and Neptune as compared to that of Saturn.
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3. small shephard moons that orbit near the rings.
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Which of the following is a satellite of Pluto? 1. Nereid 2. Krypton 3. Triton 4. Miranda 5. Charon
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5. Charon
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Uranus and Neptune appear blue because 1. their atmospheres absorb red light very efficiently. 2. both of them have very small masses for Jovian planets. 3. the wind speeds are very high and show a strong blue shift. 4. their atmospheres absorb blue light very efficiently. 5. their surfaces are covered with water and their clouds are very thin.
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1. their atmospheres absorb red light very efficiently.
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The graph below plots the escape velocity of several solar system objects along the vertical axis and the surface temperature along the horizontal. The lines plotted in the figure are the average speeds of gas particles as a function of temperature of various gases. Which of the objects in this diagram has the greatest surface temperature? 1. Titan 2. Pluto 3. Ganymede 4. Triton 5. Miranda
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3. Ganymede
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That Mercury has a large iron core is evidenced by a. the large lobate scarps. b. the large mean density of Mercury. c. the lava flows near Caloris Basin. d. all of the above. e. none of the above.
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e. none of the above.
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At Jupiter’s very center is a core of a. heavy elements (molten rock and iron). b. helium. c. hydrogen. d. both a and b.
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a. heavy elements (molten rock and iron).
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Jupiter does not have a. a hot interior. b. convection occurring in its atmosphere. c. crustal plates on its surface. d. a dynamo effect. e. any rings.
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c. crustal plates on its surface.
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The reddish particles in Jupiter’s ring are less than 1 percent as reflective as Saturn’s whiter particles. Saturn’s ring particles are thought to be ____while Jupiters are thought to be ______. a. icy; rocky b. rocky; icy c. icy; also icy d. rocky; also rocky
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a. icy; rocky
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Why is Saturn oblate? a. The gravity of its moons flattens the planet. b. The rapid rotation of the planet flattens it. c. It formed that way originally and has no way to reshape itself. d. The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn interact and cause the planet to flatten.
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b. The rapid rotation of the planet flattens it.
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The ____ of a planet is the region around the planet where the magnetic field is able to deflect the solar wind and other charged particles. a. aurora b. magnetosphere c. hydrosphere d. corona e. Schwarzschild radius
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b. magnetosphere
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The Roche limit is the a. distance from the sun within which a planet cannot retain an atmosphere. b. minimum mass of an object in the solar system that would be classified as a planet. c. maximum separation distance between the sun and a given planet. d. distance from Earth at which we lose radio communication with a satellite. e. distance from a planet within which a planet cannot hold itself together.
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e. distance from a planet within which a planet cannot hold itself together.
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As a moon in a very elliptical orbit moves closer to and then farther from a planet, gravity flexes the moon with tides, and friction heats the interior. This process is referred to as a. tidal heating. b. occultation. c. vaporization. d. differentiation. e. sublimation.
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a. tidal heating.
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Uranus and Neptune do not contain liquid metallic hydrogen because they a. are not massive enough. b. do not contain enough hydrogen. c. rotate too slowly. d. are too far from the sun. e. have magnetic fields that are much too weak.
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a. are not massive enough.
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The rotation of Uranus is peculiar in that a. it is very slow, nearly zero. b. it is much faster than is typical for Jovian planets. c. it first turns in one direction, then stops and turns in the opposite direction. d. the axis is nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit.
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d. the axis is nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit.
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15. Which of these are nearly 90 degrees to the orbit plane of Uranus? a. Uranus’ equator b. the orbital planes of its major satellites c. the orbital plane of its rings d. all of the above.
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d. all of the above.
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The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are peculiar in that they are a. highly inclined to their planet’s axis of rotation. b. very weak (virtually zero). c. produced by the solar wind. d. produced by disturbances caused by the orbits of the moons. e. all of the above.
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a. highly inclined to their planet’s axis of rotation.
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The narrowness of the rings of Uranus and Neptune is believed to be caused by a. gravitational interactions between ring particles. b. a spiral density wave which confines them. c. the magnetic field which holds them in place. d. the smaller mass of Uranus and Neptune as compared to that of Saturn. e. small shepherd moons that orbit near the rings.
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e. small shepherd moons that orbit near the rings.
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Uranus and Neptune appear blue or blue-green because a. their atmospheres absorb blue light very efficiently. b. their solid air-less surfaces are this color c. their surfaces are covered with liquid water with no atmosphere d. traces of methane in their atmospheres absorb red light very efficiently.
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d. traces of methane in their atmospheres absorb red light very efficiently.
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Which of these Galilean satellites is most geologically active? a. Io b. Europa c. Callisto d. Ganymede
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a. Io
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Why is Saturn’s moon Titan able to retain an atmosphere? a. Titan only contains light gases which are easy to retain. b. Titan has a large enough mass and is cold enough. c. Titan is biologically active. d. It is so close to Saturn that Saturn’s gravity retains Titan’s atmosphere.
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b. Titan has a large enough mass and is cold enough.
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Triton has a retrograde orbit around Neptune. This means that ____________ . a. Triton orbits in the same direction as Neptune rotates on its axis. b. Triton orbits in the opposite direction to the way Neptune rotates on its axis. c. Triton does not orbit around Neptune. Instead, it stands still.
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b. Triton orbits in the opposite direction to the way Neptune rotates on its axis.
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Pluto’s density is 1.8 g/cm3. Iron is about 5 g/cm3. Rock is about is 3 g/cm3. Ice or water is 1.0 g/cm3. This implies that a. Pluto has a large iron-nickel core. b. Pluto is about 50% water and 50% rocky material. c. Pluto is all rock. d. Pluto is all water or water ice.
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b. Pluto is about 50% water and 50% rocky material.
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____ is a satellite of Pluto. a. Miranda b. Charon c. Venus d. Krypton e. Nereid
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b. Charon
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That Mercury has a large iron core is evidenced by a. the large lobate scarps. b. the large mean density of Mercury. c. the lava flows near Caloris Basin. d. all of the above. e. none of the above.
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b. the large mean density of Mercury.
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Mercury’s major atmospheric gas is a. oxygen. b. hydrogen. c. carbon dioxide. d. Misleading; the atmosphere is virtually nonexistent.
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d. Misleading; the atmosphere is virtually nonexistent.
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The geology of Venus appears to be dominated by a. volcanism. b. plate tectonics. c. erosion by flowing water. d. impact cratering. e. strip mining.
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a. volcanism.
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The greenhouse effect keeps Venus hot because a. the atmosphere contains free oxygen. b. the atmosphere is predominantly carbon dioxide. c. the surface converts infrared into visible radiation. d. the surface is free of sulfur compounds. e. the magnetic field traps a large number of particles from the solar
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b. the atmosphere is predominantly carbon dioxide.
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Measurements of the magnetic field of Venus reveal that the a. planet has a large iron core. b. interior of the planet is molten. c. planet has no detectable magnetic field. d. planet rotates backwards. e. magnetic field is responsible for large auroral displays (northern lights) on Venus.
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c. planet has no detectable magnetic field.
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The extreme size of volcanoes on Mars indicates that a. Mars has a much thicker crust than Earth. b. water once flowed in streams on Mars. c. large moving plates have not formed on Mars. d. a and c. e. a, b, and c.
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d. a and c.
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The moons of Mars are believed to be a. composed primarily of iron and nickel. b. composed primarily of frozen gases of water and carbon dioxide. c. orbiting Mars in a direction opposite to the direction that Mars rotates. d. formed from material ejected from Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes on Mars. e. captured asteroids.
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e. captured asteroids.
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Which of the solar system objects listed below is most similar to Earth in terms of mass and density? a. Mercury b. the moon c. Venus d. Mars e. Deimos
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c. Venus
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The greenhouse effect produces excess heat in a planet’s atmosphere by a. trapping infrared radiation from escaping into space. b. clouds blocking the surface from receiving any infrared radiation. c. preventing light gases from escaping into space. d. trapping ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere of the planet.
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a. trapping infrared radiation from escaping into space.
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Besides Earth, which of the terrestrial planets and/or satellites of terrestrial planets show(s) evidence for the possible existence of liquid water flowing on its surface in the past? a. Venus b. the moon c. Phobos d. Mars e. None of the terrestrial planets or satellites show such evidence.
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d. Mars
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Which of the planets or satellite plotted in this diagram has the greatest escape velocity? a. Mars b. the moon c. Mercury d. Venus e. Earth
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e. Earth
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Which of the planets or satellite plotted in this diagram is least able to hold an atmosphere? a. Mars b. the moon c. Mercury d. Venus e. Earth
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b. the moon
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How rapidly a planet loses its atmosphere depends on the planet’s I. escape velocity (determined by mass and radius). II. atmospheric composition. III. temperature. IV. rotation period. a. I & II b. III & IV c. I, II, & III d. II, III, & IV e. I, II, III, & IV
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c. I, II, & III
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A bit of matter that enters Earth’s atmosphere and survives to reach the ground is called a. a meteor. b. a meteoroid. c. a meteorite. d. a minor planet. e. an asteroid.
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c. a meteorite.
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A meteor shower is produced when a. a large number of sporadic meteors are observed. b. Earth passes through the asteroid belt. c. massive particles are carried outward from the sun by the solar wind and enter Earth’s atmosphere. d. Earth passes through the orbital path of a comet. e. meteors cause condensation in the upper atmosphere that leads to early morning rains.
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d. Earth passes through the orbital path of a comet.
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Stony, iron, and stony-iron meteorite types are classified according to their a. orbit. b. distance from the sun. c. impact history. d. mineral content. e. coma.
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d. mineral content.
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The iron meteorites a. never fall on the Earth. b. are only found in the Antarctic. c. are composed of carbonaceous chondrites. d. are responsible for most of the meteor craters on the surface of the moon. e. appear to have formed in the interiors of molten planetesimals.
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e. appear to have formed in the interiors of molten planetesimals.
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Comets falling into the inner solar system from the ____ are called long-period comets. a. Oort cloud b. asteroid belt c. Roche limit d. Kuiper belt e. Widmanstätten region
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a. Oort cloud
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The gas tail of a comet always a. trails behind the head along the orbital path. b. extends ahead of the head along the orbital path. c. points toward the sun. d. points away from the sun. e. points perpendicular to the orbital path.
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d. points away from the sun.
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Most short-period comets do not have randomly oriented orbits because a. they are affected by the sun’s gravity. b. they are affected by the solar wind. c. they formed in the Kuiper Belt, a belt-shaped region in the plane of the solar system. d. their orbits are altered by the drag of their tails in the solar wind. e. they all were originally objects ejected from the asteroid belt.
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d. their orbits are altered by the drag of their tails in the solar wind.
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One currently accepted theory suggests that the bodies in the Oort cloud formed a. near the present orbits of the terrestrial planets and were then ejected by them. b. near the present orbits of the Jovian planets and were then ejected by them. c. right there in the Oort cloud very far from the sun.
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b. near the present orbits of the Jovian planets and were then ejected by them.
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The ____ is a disk-shaped cloud of icy bodies believed to extend from about 40 AU (the orbit of Pluto) out to 100 AU. It is believed that most short-period comets originate from this region. a. Oort cloud b. Widmanstätten cloud c. Apollo-Amor d. Kirkwood region e. Kuiper belt
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e. Kuiper belt
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How is the coma of a comet produced? a. Rocky material breaks off from the comet to form the coma. b. The coma is a cloud of particles that the comet has swept up in its orbital path. c. Ices vaporize to become gas that form the coma around the comet. d. Particles in the solar wind get caught in the comet’s magnetic field to form the coma.
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c. Ices vaporize to become gas that form the coma around the comet.
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What characteristic of long-period comets suggest they come directly from the Oort cloud? a. They have longer dust tails than short-period comets. b. Their orbits have random inclinations with respect to the ecliptic plane. c. Their orbits are nearly circular. d. They tend to appear larger in diameter than short-period comets.
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b. Their orbits have random inclinations with respect to the ecliptic plane.
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Which of the following is evidence for the connection between comets and meteor showers? a. Meteor and comets have the same appearance in the sky. b. Meteor showers always occur when a comet is visible. c. Meteor showers always occur 6 months after a comet passes Earth. d. Meteor showers are an annual event. Many of these are known to be when the Earth crosses a comet’s orbit.
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d. Meteor showers are an annual event. Many of these are known to be when the Earth crosses a comet’s orbit.
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Most of the asteroids orbit the sun in a belt between the orbits of a. Venus and Earth. b. Earth and Mars. c. Jupiter and Saturn. d. Mercury and Venus. e. Mars and Jupiter.
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e. Mars and Jupiter.
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14. If a large 10-km asteroid or comet struck the Earth in the ocean floor, I. large amounts of molten rock would rain down on Earth and cause massive forest fires. II. giant tidal waves would result III. after effects would cause the deaths of most animal life on the planet. IV. thick clouds of dust would form and block out the sun for an extended period. a. I & IV b. II & III c. I, II, & III d. I, II, III & IV e. II, III, & IV
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d. I, II, III & IV
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The impact of a large asteroid comet with Earth has been proposed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. The impact site of this comet is in or near a. Iowa. b. Hudson Bay. c. Crater Lake, Oregon. d. Canberra, Australia. e. Chicxulub, Mexico.
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e. Chicxulub, Mexico.