ASCP MLS study guide: Chemistry

question

Rise of CEA is associated with which cancer?
answer

Colon
question

Rise of CA-19 is associated with which cancer?
answer

GI, Pancreatic
question

Rise of AFP is associated with which cancer?
answer

Hepatic, Pancreatic, Testicular
question

Rise of CA-125 is associated with which cancer?
answer

Ovarian
question

Rise of hCG is associated with which cancer?
answer

Testicular, Ovarian (although usually indicates pregnancy)
question

Rise of PSA is associated with which cancer?
answer

Prostate
question

Which enzyme(s) help diagnose a biliary tract obstruction?
answer

ALP, GGT
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Which enzyme(s) help diagnose a bone disorder?
answer

ALP
question

Which enzyme(s) help diagnose a hepatic disorder (viral hep)?
answer

ALT, AST, LD
question

Which enzyme(s) help diagnose a skeletal muscle disorder?
answer

AST, LD, CK
question

Which enzyme(s) help diagnose a cardiac muscle disorder?
answer

AST, LD, CK, cT
question

Hypoglycemic blood glucose levels
answer

0-50
question

Normal fasting blood glucose level
answer

75
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Impaired fasting blood glucose levels
answer

100-125
question

Hyperglycemic blood glucose levels
answer

> or = 126
question

To confirm diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, one of the following must also be true:
answer

1. A repeat test with a blood glucose > or = 126 or 2. Physical symptoms + a casual (random) glucose > or = 126 or 3. Plasma glucose > or = 200 at 2 hr mark of Oral Glucose Tolerance test
question

Cardiac marker LEAST specific for an MI
answer

CK-MB
question

Cardiac marker SLOWEST to rise after an MI
answer

LD1>LD2
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Cardiac marker FASTEST to rise after an MI
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Myoglobin note: negative results for this marker can rule out an MI
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Cardiac marker MOST specific for an MI
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Troponins note: lasts longest in blood
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Apoprotein B-48 (Chylomicrons)
answer

90% triglyceride Exogenous intestinal dietary triglyceride Transported out to circulation and various tissues Ultimately degraded in liver
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Apoprotein B-100 (VLDL)
answer

70% triglyceride Synthesized in liver from edogenous triglycerides Goes out to blood and deposits triglycerides into various body tissues eventually turning into LDL
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Apoprotein B-100 (LDL)
answer

50% cholesterol Brings cholesterol into peripheral cells for membrane and hormone synthesis. Also delivers cholesterol into arterial walls
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Apoprotein A-1 (HDL)
answer

50% protein Synthesized in liver Removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues
question

Diagnostic criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: Waist size?
answer

>40 inches
question

Diagnostic criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: Triglycerides?
answer

>150 or ongoing drug treatment
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Diagnostic criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: HDL cholesterol?
answer

<40
question

Diagnostic criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: Blood pressure?
answer

130/85 or ongoing drug treatment
question

Diagnostic criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: Fasting glucose?
answer

>100 or ongoing drug treatment
question

Normal venous blood gases ranges: pH?
answer

7.32-7.42
question

Normal venous blood gases ranges: PaO2?
answer

28-48
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Normal venous blood gases ranges: HCO3?
answer

19-25
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Normal venous blood gases ranges: PaCO2?
answer

38-52
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Normal venous blood gases ranges: B.E.?
answer

-2-+2
question

Acid-Base disorders: Metabolic acidosis= 1. Low or high HCO3? 2. Hypo or Hyper ventilation to correct?
answer

1. Low HCO3 2. Hyperventilation to correct
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Acid-Base disorders: Metabolic alkalosis= 1. Low or high HCO3? 2. Hypo or Hyper ventilation to correct?
answer

1. High HCO3 2. Hypoventilation to correct
question

Acid-Base disorders: Respiratory acidosis= 1. Low or high PCO2? 2. Kidneys retain or excrete HCO2-/Excrete or retain H+ to correct?
answer

1. High PCO2 2. Kidneys retain HCO2-, excrete H+ to correct
question

Acid-Base disorders: Respiratory alkalosis= 1. Low or high PCO2? 2. Kidneys retain or excrete HCO2-/Excrete or retain H+ to correct?
answer

1. Low PCO2 2. Kidneys excrete HCO2-, retain H+ to correct
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic(hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? -Normal/increased total bilirubin -Normal conjugated bilirubin -Normal/increased unconjugated bilirubin -Normal/increased urobilinogen -Normal urine color -Normal stool color -Normal ALP -Normal ALT -Normal AST -No conjugated bilirubin in urine -Splenomegaly present
answer

Pre-hepatic jaundice
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic (hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? -Increased total bilirubin -Increased conjugated bilirubin -Increased unconjugated bilirubin -Decreased urobilinogen -Dark urine color -Normal/pale stool color -Increased ALP -Increased ALT -Increased AST -Conjugated bilirubin in urine -Splenomegaly present
answer

Hepatic Jaundice
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic (hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? -Increased total bilirubin -Increased conjugated bilirubin -Normal unconjugated bilirubin -Decreased/negative urobilinogen -Dark urine color -Pale stool color -Increased ALP -Increased ALT -Increased AST -Conjugated bilirubin in urine -Splenomegaly absent
answer

Post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic (hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? Caused by: -An increased rate of hemolysis -Malarial infections -Thalassemia -Sickle cell anemia -Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) -Gilbert’s syndrome -Type I & II Crigler-Najjar syndrome
answer

Pre-hepatic jaundice
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic (hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? Caused by: -Acute or chronic hepatitis -Hepatotoxicity -Cirrhosis -Drug-induced hepatitis -Alcoholic liver disease -Leptospirosis
answer

Hepatic (hepatocellular) jaundice
question

Pre-hepatic, hepatic (hepatocellular), or post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice? Caused by: -Gallstones in the common bile duct -Pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas -Liver flukes residing in common bile duct – Biliary atresia -Cholangiocarcinoma -Pancreatitis -Cholestasis of pregnancy -Pancreatic pseudocysts -Dubin-Johnson syndrome -Mirizzi’s syndrome (rare)
answer

Post-hepatic (obstructive) jaundice

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