Art Appreciation Test Questions

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Two-dimensional art
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has height and width, but not depth
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Elements
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the basic vocabulary of art
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Principles
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the “grammar” that artists apply to turn the elements into art
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Line
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a mark, or implied mark, between two endpoints
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Nazca Lines
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line drawings seen from the sky
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Regular (inorganic) Lines
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lines that express control and planning
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Irregular (organic) Lines
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lines that are unrestrained and express passion
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Andre Masson
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artist who would go without food or sleep to force himself to explore deeper sources of creativity
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Actual Line
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a continuous uninterrupted line
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Implied line
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a line not actually drawn but suggested by elements in the work
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Directional LIne
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line used to direct our attention to something the artist wants us to notice
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Vertical Lines
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suggest strength and energy
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Horizontal Lines
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communicate calmness and passivity
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Diagonal Lines
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express action, motion, and change
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Contour Lines
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lines that suggest a volume in space
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Geometric Shapes
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shapes composed of regular lines and curves
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Organic Shapes
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shapes composed of unpredictable, irregular lines
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Contrast
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the principle of using two noticeably different states of an element
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Positive shapes
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a shape defined by its surrounding empty space
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Negative Shape
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an empty space given shape by its surround
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Figure-ground Reversal
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reversal of relationship between one shape and its background, so that the figure becomes the background and the ground becomes the figure
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Concentric
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identical shapes sharing the same center
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Three-dimensional
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art that has height, width, and depth
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Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture
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the four elements of 3-dimensional art
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Form
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an object that can be defined in three dimensions
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Volume
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the amount of space a form occupies
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Mass
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a volume that has weight and density
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Texture
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the surface quality of a work
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Geometric Form
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are regular and expressible in words or numbers, e.g., cubes, spheres, cones, pyramids
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Organic Form
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irregular and unpredictable forms
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Abstract
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art imagery that departs from recognizable images from the natural world
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Relief
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a raised form on a flat background
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In the Round
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a freestanding form or sculpted work that can be viewed from all sides
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Open volume
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a space enclosed with materials that are not completely solid
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Negative Space
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empty space given shape by its surround (in 3-D forms)
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Subversive Texture
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textures used in works that contradict our previous tactile experience
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Surrealists
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artists who created work that drew on ideas and images from dreams and the unconscious mind
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“Object” (Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon)
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this work by Meret Oppenheim used texture to contradict the conscious logical experiences
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Guggenheim Musem
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museum in Bilbao, Spain, that is designed with largely organic, irregular forms
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Frank Gehry
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American architect that designed the Guggenheim Musem
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Bas-relief
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a sculpture carved with very little depth
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High Relief
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carved panel where the figures project with great depth from the background
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Touch
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because a form exists in “real” space, we can experience it visually and through the sense of:
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Stela
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upright stone slab decorated with inscriptions or pictorial relief carvings
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Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, cast shadow
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the five defined values of the chiaroscuro method
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Closer
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Color can imply depth; when a color is very pure and intense then it seems to be …. (distance)
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behind Christ’s head
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vanishing point in the Last Supper
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cone of vision
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area that is visible when a viewer is staring at a fixed point in space
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Atmospheric perspective
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when objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air; what process is the application of this
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Foreshortening
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a perspective technique that depicts a form at a very oblique angle to the viewer in order to show depth in space
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Linear perspective
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system using converging imaginary sight lines to create the illusion of depth
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Isometric perspective
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system using diagonal parallel lines to communicate depth
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Value
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the lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called
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Isometric perspective
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perspective common in computer graphics
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Hatching
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the use of non-overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
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Cross-hatching
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the use of overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
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Chiaroscuro
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the method of applying value to a 2-D artward in order to create the illusion of 3-D solid form
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Masaccio
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who composed the fresco the Trinity using string to map out the composition
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One-point perspective
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type of perspective that has a single vanishing point
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Vanishing point
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point where imaginary sight lines appear to converge, suggesting depth
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Three-point perspective
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perspective system with two vanishing points on the horizon and one not on the horizon
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Rythmn
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artists intersperse value and visual texture to create a sense of…
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Closer
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shapes that are larger in size, that overlap other shapes, or are placed lower in the picture plane appear to be…
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Value, space, perspective
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three techniques used to imply depth

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