Art 100-Prebles’ Art Forms, 11th Edition- Ch1-14 – Flashcards

 
question
Etching
answer
An intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is first coated with acid-resistant, wax or varnish, then scratched to expose the metal to the bite of nitric acid where lines are desired. Also, the resulting print
question
Lithography
answer
A planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used
question
Aquatint
answer
An intaglio printmaking process in which value areas rather than lines are etched on the printing plate. Powdered resin is sprinkled on the plate, which is then immersed in an acid bath. The acid bites around the resin particles, creating a rough surface that holds ink. Also, a print made using this process
question
Serigraphy
answer
Or silkscreen. A printmaking technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surface beneath
question
Formal Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that values stylistic innovation over personal expression or cultural communication
question
Contextual Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that focuses on the cultural systems behind works of art. These may be economic, racial, political, or social.
question
Expressive Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that attempts to discern personal elements in works of art, as opposed to formal strategies or cultural influences
question
Low-Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface. Also called bas-relief. No undercutting is present
question
High-Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in relief in which more than half of a significant portion of the subject emerges from the background. High-relief sculpture thus requires undercutting, in contrast to low relief.
question
Subtractive Sculpture
answer
Sculpture made by removing material from a larger block or form
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Additive Sculpture
answer
Sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from a core or (in some cases) an armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel are additive processes.
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Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in which three-dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. The degree of projection can vary and is described by the terms high relief and low relief.
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Free-Standing Sculpture
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Any piece or type of sculpture that is meant to be seen from all sides
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Design
answer
The process of arranging visual elements into a finished work. Also means the product of the process, as in, "The design of that chair is excellent."
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Unity
answer
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form
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Variety
answer
The opposite of unity. Diverse elements in the composition of a work of art. Most works strive for a balance between unity and variety
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Directional Forces
answer
Pathways that the artist embeds in a work for the viewer's eye to follow. May be done with actual or implied lines, or lines of sight among the figures depicted in a work.
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Emphasis
answer
A method an artist uses to draw attention to an area. May be done with central placement, large size, bright color, or high contrast
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Movie Frames
answer
In filmmaking, video production, animation, and related fields, a film frame or video frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture
question
(Film) Shots
answer
Any uninterrupted run of a film camera. Shots are compiled into scenes, then into movies
question
Gelatin Silver Print
answer
[AKA: gelatin developing out paper (DOP)] is a monochrome imaging process based on the light sensitivity of silver halides. A suspension of silver salts in gelatin is coated onto a support such as glass, flexible plastic or film, baryta paper, or resin-coated paper
question
Daguerreotype
answer
An early photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
question
Logo
answer
Short for "logotype." Sign, name, or trademark of an institution, a firm, or a publication, consisting of letterforms or pictorial elements.
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A Letter form
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the graphic form of a letter of the alphabet, either as written or in a particular type font.
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Serif
answer
Short lines that end the upper and lower strokes of a letter in some fonts. The capital I has two serifs in Adobe Garamond; the small m has one.
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Font
answer
The name given to a style of type
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Figure Ground Reversal
answer
may be used as an intentional visual design technique in which an existing image's foreground and background colors are purposely swapped to create new images; A visual effect in which what was seen as a positive shape becomes a negative shape, and vice versa
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M.C. Escher's work
answer
Interactions between figure and ground are heightened in some images. In the upper half of M. C. Escher's print Sky and Water I, we see dark geese on a white ground. As our eyes move down the page, the light upper background becomes fish against a black background. In the middle, however, fish and geese interlock so perfectly that we are not sure what is figure and what is ground. As our awareness shifts, fish shapes and bird shapes trade places, a phenomenon called figure-ground reversal
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Contrast
answer
the state of being strikingly different from something else, typically something in juxtaposition or close association.
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Subordination
answer
Technique by which an artist ranks certain areas of a work as of lesser importance. Areas are generally subordinated through placement, color, or size
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Asymmetry
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not identical on both sides of a central line; unsymmetrical; lacking symmetry
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Symmetry
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A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis
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Radial balance
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any type of balance based on a circle with its design extending. from center
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Focal point
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The principal area of emphasis in a work of art. The place to which the artist directs the most attention through composition. May or may not be the same as the vanishing point in a work.
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Directional forces
answer
Pathways that the artist embeds in a work for the viewer's eye to follow. May be done with actual or implied lines, or lines of sight among the figures depicted in a work.
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Symmetrical balance
answer
The near or exact matching of left and right sides of a three-dimensional form or a two-dimensional composition
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Rhythm
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The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design
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Clay
answer
A group of hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate minerals. Often also used to refer to the clay body, which sometimes may only contain small amounts of clay minerals
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Potter's wheel
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a horizontal revolving disk on which wet clay is shaped into pots or other round ceramic objects
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Ceramicist
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Clay hardened into a relatively permanent material by firing, and the artform that includes this procedure.
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Abstract art
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Art that is based on natural appearances but departs significantly from them. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees
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Folk art
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Art of people who have had no formal, academic training, but whose works are part of an established tradition of style and craftsmanship. Examples include religious carvers, quilt makers, and shop-sign painters.
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Representational art
answer
Art in which it is the artist's intention to present again or represent a particular subject, especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter
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Nonrepresentational art
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Art without reference to anything outside itself—without representation. Also called "nonobjective"—without recognizable objects
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Proof
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A trial print, usually made as an artist works on a plate or block, to check the progress of a work
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Original print
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an artwork that has been manually printed by the artist (or with some processes, printed under the artist's direct supervision). It is not a reproduction. The artist will have created an image on block, stone, plate or screen from which the final print is produced.
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a Reproduction(Print)
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the action or process of making a copy of something; a copy of a work of art, especially a print or photograph of a painting
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Line
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A long, narrow mark. Usually made by drawing with a tool or a brush, but may be created by placing two forms next to each other
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Shape
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A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in color
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Rhythm
answer
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design
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Color
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the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light
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Intensity
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The relative purity or saturation of a hue (color), on a scale from bright (pure) to dull. Varying intensities are achieved by mixing a hue with a neutral or with another hue.
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Hue
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That property of a color identifying a specific, named wavelength of light such as green, red, violet, and so on. Often used synonymously with color
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Value
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The lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value; black is the darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray. Sometimes called "tone."
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Form
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In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object or event. Usually describes the visual elements of a work of art that create meaning, for example: A huge, looming shape in a painting is a form that may create haunting or foreboding meaning
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Aesthetics
answer
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty. Within the art context: the philosophy of art focusing on questions regarding what art is, how it is evaluated, the concept of beauty, and the relationship between the idea of beauty and the concept of art
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Loom
answer
A device for producing cloth or fiber art by interweaving fibers at right angles
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Tapestry
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A loom weaving method in which weft fibers of irregular length are pulled through stable warps to create patterns or pictures
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Weft
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In weaving, the horizontal threads interlaced through the warp. Also called woof
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Warp
answer
In weaving, the threads that run lengthwise in a fabric, crossed at right angles by the weft. Also, the process of arranging yarn or thread on a loom so as to form a warp.
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Texture
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The tactile qualities of surfaces, or the visual representation of those qualities
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Encaustic
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A type of painting in which pigment is suspended in a binder of hot wax, or beeswax
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Beeswax
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a natural wax produced by honey bees; Used in Encaustic painting
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Linear Perspective
answer
A system for creating an illusion of depth or three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Usually used to refer to linear perspective, which is based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases. Atmospheric perspective (aerial perspective) creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation (intensity), value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Parallel lines remain parallel; there is no convergence. A work executed in one-point perspective has a single vanishing point. A work in two-point perspective has two of them
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Calligraphy
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The art of beautiful writing. Broadly, a flowing use of line, often varying from thick to thin.
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Dry Media
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Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or use a fluid solvent or carrier (marker, pen and ink). Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects
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Gouache
answer
An opaque, water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added
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Pencil
answer
an instrument for writing or drawing, consisting of a thin stick of graphite or a similar substance enclosed in a long thin piece of wood or fixed in a metal or plastic case.
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Charcoal
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A dry drawing medium made from charred twigs, usually vine or willow
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Crayon
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a pencil or stick of colored chalk or wax, used for drawing
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a Wash
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A thin, transparent layer of paint or ink
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a Support
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The physical material that provides the base for and sustains a two-dimensional work of art. Paper is the usual support for drawings and prints; canvas or panels are common supports in painting.
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Overpainting
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cover with a layer of paint
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a Glaze
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In oil painting, a thin transparent or translucent layer brushed over another layer of paint, allowing the first layer to show through but enriching its color slightly. In ceramics, a vitreous or glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces. Glaze may be colored, transparent, or opaque. 2. A silica-based paint for clay that fuses with the clay body on firing. Can be almost any color, or translucent. The silica base makes a glasslike surface on the clay piece
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Trompe l'oeil
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visual illusion in art, especially as used to trick the eye into perceiving a painted detail as a three-dimensional object.
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Chiaroscuro
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Italian word meaning "light dark." The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery. Especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters
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Acrylic
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A clear synthetic resin used as a binder in acrylic paint and as a casting material in sculpture
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Tempera
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A water-based paint that uses egg yolk as a binder. Many commercially made paints identified as tempera are actually gouache
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Oil
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a paste made with ground pigment and a drying oil such as linseed oil, used chiefly by artists
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Watercolor
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Paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the resulting painting
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Assemblage Work
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Sculpture made by assembling found or cast-off objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
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Fresco
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A painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. The pigments dry to become part of the plaster wall or surface. Sometimes called true fresco or buon fresco to distinguish it from painting over dry plaster, or "fresco secco."
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Wet-Plaster
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the application of a mixture of lime, cement or gypsum plaster and/or sand and water (or other materials to achieve a similar result) for the covering of internal or external walls and ceilings.
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Canvas
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a strong, coarse unbleached cloth made from hemp, flax, cotton, or a similar yarn, used to make items such as sails and tents and as a surface for oil painting.
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Structure
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the arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex
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Function
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having or serving a utilitarian purpose; capable of serving the purpose for which it was designed; constructed or made according to the principles of functionalism or primarily as a direct fulfillment of a material need.
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Form
answer
in the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object or event. Usually describes the visual elements of a work of art that create meaning, for example: A huge, looming shape in a painting is a form that may create haunting or foreboding meaning.
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Carving
answer
A subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools
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Modeling
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Working pliable material such as clay or wax into three-dimensional forms
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Bas-Relief
answer
Sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface. Also called low relief. No undercutting is present
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Casting
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A substitution process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. When the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a form in the shape of the mold is left
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Mixed Media art-work
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Works of art made with more than one medium
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Symbolic Meaning/Iconography
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The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms. For example, in traditional Christian art, a key symbolizes Saint Peter, to whom Christ gave the keys to the kingdom of heaven. An hourglass symbolizes the passage of time, etc.
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Proportion
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The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another
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Scale
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The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size. In architectural drawings, the ratio of the measurements in the drawing to the measurements in the building
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Artist: Dale Chihuly
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The fluid and translucent qualities of glass are used to the fullest in his Seaforms series. He produces such pieces with a team of glass artists working under his direction. In this series, he arranged groups of pieces and carefully directed the lighting to suggest delicate undersea environments.
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Glass
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Glass has been used for at least four thousand years as a material for practical containers of all shapes and sizes. Elaborate, blown-glass pieces have been made in Venice since the Renaissance. Chemically, glass is closely related to ceramic glaze. Hot or molten glass is a sensitive, amorphous material that is shaped by blowing, casting, or pressing into molds. As it cools, glass solidifies from its molten state without crystallizing. After it is blown or cast, glass may be cut, etched, fused, laminated, layered, leaded, painted, polished, sandblasted, or slumped (softened for a controlled sag). The fluid nature of glass produces qualities of mass flowing into line, as well as translucent volumes of airy thinness.
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Artist: Alexander Calder
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Alexander Calder was among the first to explore the possibilities of kinetic sculpture, or sculpture that moves. Sculptors' traditional focus on mass is replaced in Calder's work by a focus on shape, space, and movement. Calder, a leading inventor of kinetic art, was one of the first twentieth-century artists who made actual motion a major feature of their art.
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question
Etching
answer
An intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is first coated with acid-resistant, wax or varnish, then scratched to expose the metal to the bite of nitric acid where lines are desired. Also, the resulting print
question
Lithography
answer
A planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used
question
Aquatint
answer
An intaglio printmaking process in which value areas rather than lines are etched on the printing plate. Powdered resin is sprinkled on the plate, which is then immersed in an acid bath. The acid bites around the resin particles, creating a rough surface that holds ink. Also, a print made using this process
question
Serigraphy
answer
Or silkscreen. A printmaking technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surface beneath
question
Formal Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that values stylistic innovation over personal expression or cultural communication
question
Contextual Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that focuses on the cultural systems behind works of art. These may be economic, racial, political, or social.
question
Expressive Theory
answer
A method of art criticism that attempts to discern personal elements in works of art, as opposed to formal strategies or cultural influences
question
Low-Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface. Also called bas-relief. No undercutting is present
question
High-Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in relief in which more than half of a significant portion of the subject emerges from the background. High-relief sculpture thus requires undercutting, in contrast to low relief.
question
Subtractive Sculpture
answer
Sculpture made by removing material from a larger block or form
question
Additive Sculpture
answer
Sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from a core or (in some cases) an armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel are additive processes.
question
Relief Sculpture
answer
Sculpture in which three-dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. The degree of projection can vary and is described by the terms high relief and low relief.
question
Free-Standing Sculpture
answer
Any piece or type of sculpture that is meant to be seen from all sides
question
Design
answer
The process of arranging visual elements into a finished work. Also means the product of the process, as in, "The design of that chair is excellent."
question
Unity
answer
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form
question
Variety
answer
The opposite of unity. Diverse elements in the composition of a work of art. Most works strive for a balance between unity and variety
question
Directional Forces
answer
Pathways that the artist embeds in a work for the viewer's eye to follow. May be done with actual or implied lines, or lines of sight among the figures depicted in a work.
question
Emphasis
answer
A method an artist uses to draw attention to an area. May be done with central placement, large size, bright color, or high contrast
question
Movie Frames
answer
In filmmaking, video production, animation, and related fields, a film frame or video frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture
question
(Film) Shots
answer
Any uninterrupted run of a film camera. Shots are compiled into scenes, then into movies
question
Gelatin Silver Print
answer
[AKA: gelatin developing out paper (DOP)] is a monochrome imaging process based on the light sensitivity of silver halides. A suspension of silver salts in gelatin is coated onto a support such as glass, flexible plastic or film, baryta paper, or resin-coated paper
question
Daguerreotype
answer
An early photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
question
Logo
answer
Short for "logotype." Sign, name, or trademark of an institution, a firm, or a publication, consisting of letterforms or pictorial elements.
question
A Letter form
answer
the graphic form of a letter of the alphabet, either as written or in a particular type font.
question
Serif
answer
Short lines that end the upper and lower strokes of a letter in some fonts. The capital I has two serifs in Adobe Garamond; the small m has one.
question
Font
answer
The name given to a style of type
question
Figure Ground Reversal
answer
may be used as an intentional visual design technique in which an existing image's foreground and background colors are purposely swapped to create new images; A visual effect in which what was seen as a positive shape becomes a negative shape, and vice versa
question
M.C. Escher's work
answer
Interactions between figure and ground are heightened in some images. In the upper half of M. C. Escher's print Sky and Water I, we see dark geese on a white ground. As our eyes move down the page, the light upper background becomes fish against a black background. In the middle, however, fish and geese interlock so perfectly that we are not sure what is figure and what is ground. As our awareness shifts, fish shapes and bird shapes trade places, a phenomenon called figure-ground reversal
question
Contrast
answer
the state of being strikingly different from something else, typically something in juxtaposition or close association.
question
Subordination
answer
Technique by which an artist ranks certain areas of a work as of lesser importance. Areas are generally subordinated through placement, color, or size
question
Asymmetry
answer
not identical on both sides of a central line; unsymmetrical; lacking symmetry
question
Symmetry
answer
A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis
question
Radial balance
answer
any type of balance based on a circle with its design extending. from center
question
Focal point
answer
The principal area of emphasis in a work of art. The place to which the artist directs the most attention through composition. May or may not be the same as the vanishing point in a work.
question
Directional forces
answer
Pathways that the artist embeds in a work for the viewer's eye to follow. May be done with actual or implied lines, or lines of sight among the figures depicted in a work.
question
Symmetrical balance
answer
The near or exact matching of left and right sides of a three-dimensional form or a two-dimensional composition
question
Rhythm
answer
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design
question
Clay
answer
A group of hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate minerals. Often also used to refer to the clay body, which sometimes may only contain small amounts of clay minerals
question
Potter's wheel
answer
a horizontal revolving disk on which wet clay is shaped into pots or other round ceramic objects
question
Ceramicist
answer
Clay hardened into a relatively permanent material by firing, and the artform that includes this procedure.
question
Abstract art
answer
Art that is based on natural appearances but departs significantly from them. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees
question
Folk art
answer
Art of people who have had no formal, academic training, but whose works are part of an established tradition of style and craftsmanship. Examples include religious carvers, quilt makers, and shop-sign painters.
question
Representational art
answer
Art in which it is the artist's intention to present again or represent a particular subject, especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter
question
Nonrepresentational art
answer
Art without reference to anything outside itself—without representation. Also called "nonobjective"—without recognizable objects
question
Proof
answer
A trial print, usually made as an artist works on a plate or block, to check the progress of a work
question
Original print
answer
an artwork that has been manually printed by the artist (or with some processes, printed under the artist's direct supervision). It is not a reproduction. The artist will have created an image on block, stone, plate or screen from which the final print is produced.
question
a Reproduction(Print)
answer
the action or process of making a copy of something; a copy of a work of art, especially a print or photograph of a painting
question
Line
answer
A long, narrow mark. Usually made by drawing with a tool or a brush, but may be created by placing two forms next to each other
question
Shape
answer
A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in color
question
Rhythm
answer
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design
question
Color
answer
the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light
question
Intensity
answer
The relative purity or saturation of a hue (color), on a scale from bright (pure) to dull. Varying intensities are achieved by mixing a hue with a neutral or with another hue.
question
Hue
answer
That property of a color identifying a specific, named wavelength of light such as green, red, violet, and so on. Often used synonymously with color
question
Value
answer
The lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value; black is the darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray. Sometimes called "tone."
question
Form
answer
In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object or event. Usually describes the visual elements of a work of art that create meaning, for example: A huge, looming shape in a painting is a form that may create haunting or foreboding meaning
question
Aesthetics
answer
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty. Within the art context: the philosophy of art focusing on questions regarding what art is, how it is evaluated, the concept of beauty, and the relationship between the idea of beauty and the concept of art
question
Loom
answer
A device for producing cloth or fiber art by interweaving fibers at right angles
question
Tapestry
answer
A loom weaving method in which weft fibers of irregular length are pulled through stable warps to create patterns or pictures
question
Weft
answer
In weaving, the horizontal threads interlaced through the warp. Also called woof
question
Warp
answer
In weaving, the threads that run lengthwise in a fabric, crossed at right angles by the weft. Also, the process of arranging yarn or thread on a loom so as to form a warp.
question
Texture
answer
The tactile qualities of surfaces, or the visual representation of those qualities
question
Encaustic
answer
A type of painting in which pigment is suspended in a binder of hot wax, or beeswax
question
Beeswax
answer
a natural wax produced by honey bees; Used in Encaustic painting
question
Linear Perspective
answer
A system for creating an illusion of depth or three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Usually used to refer to linear perspective, which is based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases. Atmospheric perspective (aerial perspective) creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation (intensity), value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Parallel lines remain parallel; there is no convergence. A work executed in one-point perspective has a single vanishing point. A work in two-point perspective has two of them
question
Calligraphy
answer
The art of beautiful writing. Broadly, a flowing use of line, often varying from thick to thin.
question
Dry Media
answer
Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or use a fluid solvent or carrier (marker, pen and ink). Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencils, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects
question
Gouache
answer
An opaque, water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added
question
Pencil
answer
an instrument for writing or drawing, consisting of a thin stick of graphite or a similar substance enclosed in a long thin piece of wood or fixed in a metal or plastic case.
question
Charcoal
answer
A dry drawing medium made from charred twigs, usually vine or willow
question
Crayon
answer
a pencil or stick of colored chalk or wax, used for drawing
question
a Wash
answer
A thin, transparent layer of paint or ink
question
a Support
answer
The physical material that provides the base for and sustains a two-dimensional work of art. Paper is the usual support for drawings and prints; canvas or panels are common supports in painting.
question
Overpainting
answer
cover with a layer of paint
question
a Glaze
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In oil painting, a thin transparent or translucent layer brushed over another layer of paint, allowing the first layer to show through but enriching its color slightly. In ceramics, a vitreous or glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces. Glaze may be colored, transparent, or opaque. 2. A silica-based paint for clay that fuses with the clay body on firing. Can be almost any color, or translucent. The silica base makes a glasslike surface on the clay piece
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Trompe l'oeil
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visual illusion in art, especially as used to trick the eye into perceiving a painted detail as a three-dimensional object.
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Chiaroscuro
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Italian word meaning "light dark." The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery. Especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters
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Acrylic
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A clear synthetic resin used as a binder in acrylic paint and as a casting material in sculpture
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Tempera
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A water-based paint that uses egg yolk as a binder. Many commercially made paints identified as tempera are actually gouache
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Oil
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a paste made with ground pigment and a drying oil such as linseed oil, used chiefly by artists
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Watercolor
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Paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the resulting painting
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Assemblage Work
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Sculpture made by assembling found or cast-off objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
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Fresco
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A painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. The pigments dry to become part of the plaster wall or surface. Sometimes called true fresco or buon fresco to distinguish it from painting over dry plaster, or "fresco secco."
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Wet-Plaster
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the application of a mixture of lime, cement or gypsum plaster and/or sand and water (or other materials to achieve a similar result) for the covering of internal or external walls and ceilings.
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Canvas
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a strong, coarse unbleached cloth made from hemp, flax, cotton, or a similar yarn, used to make items such as sails and tents and as a surface for oil painting.
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Structure
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the arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex
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Function
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having or serving a utilitarian purpose; capable of serving the purpose for which it was designed; constructed or made according to the principles of functionalism or primarily as a direct fulfillment of a material need.
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Form
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in the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object or event. Usually describes the visual elements of a work of art that create meaning, for example: A huge, looming shape in a painting is a form that may create haunting or foreboding meaning.
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Carving
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A subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools
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Modeling
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Working pliable material such as clay or wax into three-dimensional forms
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Bas-Relief
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Sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface. Also called low relief. No undercutting is present
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Casting
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A substitution process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. When the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a form in the shape of the mold is left
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Mixed Media art-work
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Works of art made with more than one medium
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Symbolic Meaning/Iconography
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The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms. For example, in traditional Christian art, a key symbolizes Saint Peter, to whom Christ gave the keys to the kingdom of heaven. An hourglass symbolizes the passage of time, etc.
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Proportion
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The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another
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Scale
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The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size. In architectural drawings, the ratio of the measurements in the drawing to the measurements in the building
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Artist: Dale Chihuly
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The fluid and translucent qualities of glass are used to the fullest in his Seaforms series. He produces such pieces with a team of glass artists working under his direction. In this series, he arranged groups of pieces and carefully directed the lighting to suggest delicate undersea environments.
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Glass
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Glass has been used for at least four thousand years as a material for practical containers of all shapes and sizes. Elaborate, blown-glass pieces have been made in Venice since the Renaissance. Chemically, glass is closely related to ceramic glaze. Hot or molten glass is a sensitive, amorphous material that is shaped by blowing, casting, or pressing into molds. As it cools, glass solidifies from its molten state without crystallizing. After it is blown or cast, glass may be cut, etched, fused, laminated, layered, leaded, painted, polished, sandblasted, or slumped (softened for a controlled sag). The fluid nature of glass produces qualities of mass flowing into line, as well as translucent volumes of airy thinness.
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Artist: Alexander Calder
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Alexander Calder was among the first to explore the possibilities of kinetic sculpture, or sculpture that moves. Sculptors' traditional focus on mass is replaced in Calder's work by a focus on shape, space, and movement. Calder, a leading inventor of kinetic art, was one of the first twentieth-century artists who made actual motion a major feature of their art.