Army Study Guide – First Aid

question

What is Self Aid?
answer

Emergency treatment one applies to ones self
question

Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
answer

1. Bayonet 2. Rifle 3. Entrenching tool 4. Tent poles and stakes 5. Web belt
question

What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
answer

Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
question

How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body?
answer

11
question

What is the object of first aid?
answer

1. To stop bleeding 2. Overcome shock 3. Relieve pain 4. Prevent infection
question

What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
answer

FM 4-25.11
question

What is First Aid?
answer

It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available
question

What is the unique feature of type “O” blood?
answer

It is a universal donor
question

When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
answer

If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
question

What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
answer

Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)
question

How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
answer

2 to 4 inches
question

What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC’s of medical treatment)
answer

1. Open the airway and restore breathing 2. Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound 3. Prevent shock
question

When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
answer

The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
question

Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
answer

Use the casualty’s field dressing.
question

How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied?
answer

Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. DO NOT tie so tightly that it has a tourniquet-like effect.
question

What is manual pressure?
answer

If bleeding continues after applying the sterile field dressing, direct manual pressure may be used to help control bleeding. Apply such pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes. The casualty may be asked to do this himself if he is conscious and can follow instructions.
question

Should a casualty be given water to drink?
answer

He should not eat or drink
question

Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
answer

To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding
question

What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
answer

Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
question

Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
answer

No, only qualified medical personnel can do that
question

Where is a tourniquet applied?
answer

Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart). Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture, or joint. Tourniquets, for maximum effectiveness, should be placed on the upper arm or above the knee on the thigh.
question

How can you prevent athlete’s foot?
answer

Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
question

Name 3 categories of heat injuries
answer

1. Heat cramps 2. Heat exhaustion 3. Heat stroke
question

What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
answer

1. Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs) 2. Abdominal Cramps (stomach) 3. Excessive Sweating
question

What is the treatment for heat cramps?
answer

1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available. 2. Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment) 3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water. (The body absorbs cool water faster than warm or cold water; therefore, cool water is preferred if it is available.) 4. Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.
question

What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
answer

1. Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin 2. Headache 3. Weakness 4. Dizziness 5. Loss of appetite 6. Cramping 7. Nausea (with or without vomiting) 8. Urge to defecate 9. Chills (Gooseflesh) 10. Rapid Breathing 11. Tingling of Hands/Feet 12. Confusion
question

What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
answer

1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available. 2. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment); pour water on him and fan him. 3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water. 4. Elevate his legs. 5. If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day. 6. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.
question

What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
answer

1. Skin is red, hot and dry 2. Weakness 3. Dizziness 4. Confusion 5. Headaches 6. Seizures 7. Nausea 8. Stomach pains or cramps 9. Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak. 10. Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.
question

What would the treatment be for heat stroke?
answer

Cool casualty immediately by— 1. Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available. 2. Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment). 3. Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation. 4. Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the cooling process. 5. Elevating his legs. 6. Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious. 7. Seek medical assistance immediately
question

If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
answer

The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
question

What are two basic types of fractures?
answer

1. Open (compound) 2. Closed (simple)
question

What are some signs of an open fracture?
answer

1. Bleeding. 2. Bones sticking through the skin. 3. Check for pulse.
question

What are some signs of a closed fracture?
answer

1. Swelling. 2. Discoloration. 3. Deformity. 4. Unusual body position. 5. Check for pulse.
question

With an open fracture, what should you do first?
answer

Stop the bleeding
question

What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
answer

“Splint them where they lie”
question

How tight should tourniquet be?
answer

Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
question

What are the three types of bleeding?
answer

1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat 2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream 3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
question

Name 4 common points for checking pulse
answer

1. Carotid- The side of the neck 2. Femoral- The groin 3. Radial- The wrist 4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
question

What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
answer

1. Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp) 2. Restlessness and nervousness 3. Thirst 4. Loss of blood 5. Confusion 6. Fast breathing 7. Nausea or vomiting 8. Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips) 9. Often perspires freely 10. May pass out.
question

What is the treatment for shock?
answer

“P.E.L.C.R.N.” P osition the casualty on their back E levate the Legs L oosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding C limatize (prevent too hot or too cold) R eassure (keep the casualty calm) N otify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
question

What is a heat injury?
answer

A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body
question

What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
answer

Cleanliness
question

How do you stop bleeding?
answer

1. Apply a field dressing 2. Manual pressure 3. Elevate the limb 4. Apply a pressure dressing 5. Digital Pressure 6. Apply a tourniquet
question

What is CPR?
answer

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat
question

When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
answer

1. When a doctor tells you to stop 2. When others relieve you 3. When you cannot physically continue 4. When the casualty starts to breath on his own
question

What is AIDS
answer

AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person’s immune system
question

Name two types of rescue breathing
answer

1. Mouth to mouth 2. Mouth to nose
question

What do the letters AIDS stand for?
answer

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
question

When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
answer

When the casualty has a: 1. Head injury 2. Abdominal wound 3. Fractured (unsplinted) leg
question

How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
answer

5 to 10 minutes
question

What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty?
answer

Turn their head to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit
question

When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
answer

As a last resort when everything else has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off
question

What does COLD stand for?
answer

It is a key word in cold weather protection, it stands for Keep it CLEAN, Avoid OVERHEATING, Wear it LOOSE and in layers and Keep it DRY
question

What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
answer

Check for: 1. Responsiveness 2. Breathing 3. Pulse 4. Bleeding 5. Shock 6. Fractures 7. Burns 8. Possible concussions (head injuries)
question

What is the first indication of frostbite?
answer

Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it
question

What do you do to treat frostbite?
answer

Remove clothing from the affected area, warm with body heat, dress the area and seek additional medical help
question

When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?
answer

As the individual breathes out
question

How should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?
answer

On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure
question

What do you do with exposed abdominal organs?
answer

Wrap them in dry clean material and place on top of the abdomen (never try to put them back in)
question

How do you take the Carotid pulse?
answer

Carotid pulse. To check the carotid pulse, feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty’s neck closest to you. This is done by placing the tips of your first two fingers beside his Adam’s apple.
question

In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
answer

1In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods? 2. Two-Man Support Carry 3. Two-Man Arms Carry 4. Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry 5. Four-Hand Seat Carry 6. Two-Hand Seat Carry
question

In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one-man methods?
answer

1. Fireman’s carry 2. Supporting carry 3. Arms Carry 4. Saddleback carry 5. Pack-strap carry 6. Pistol belt carry 7. Pistol belt drag 8. Neck drag 9. LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE 10. LBE Carry UsingCasualty’s LBE 11. Cradle Drop Drag
question

Should you put any medication or cream on a burn?
answer

No
question

Name the four types of burns
answer

1. Thermal 2. Electrical 3. Chemical 4. Laser
question

What is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?
answer

Lessen or prevent shock and infection
question

What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?
answer

1. Urgent- within 2 hours 2. Priority- within 4 hours 3. Routine- within 24 hours
question

What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?
answer

Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out
question

What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?
answer

Remove the casualty from the source of the burn
question

What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
answer

1. The jaw thrust 2. Head tilt/chin lift methods
question

What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease?
answer

Dental plaque
question

What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
answer

1. Unexplained runny nose 2. Unexplained headache 3. Sudden drooling 4. Difficulty seeing (dimness of vision and miosis) 5. Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing 6. Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of contaminated skin 7. Stomach cramps 8. Nausea 9. Tachycardia followed by bradycardia (Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid heartbeat wth a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute)
question

What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
answer

1. Strange or confused behavior. 2. Wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and coughing. 3. Severely pinpointed pupils. 4. Red eyes with tearing. 5. Vomiting. 6. Severe muscular twitching and general weakness. 7. Involuntary urination and defecation. 8. Convulsions. 9. Unconsciousness. 10. Respiratory failure. 11. Bradycardia.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member