Argument Technique in Martin Luther King, Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" Speech Pretest

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1) We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. 2) This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. 3) Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. 4) Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Which sentence contains the strongest use of emotional connotation?
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Sentence 4
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Which words does Martin Luther King, Jr. include in his “I Have a Dream” speech to highlight the limitations of segregation? Check all that apply.
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✓ “crippled” ✘ “opportunity” ✓ “poverty” ✘”democracy” ✓ “racial injustice” ✘”hallowed spot”
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Patriotism is often taught through school routines. Young Americans may stand to say, “I pledge allegiance to the flag.” They may attend special assemblies or programs honoring veterans. Career studies may include descriptions of armed service professions. Even the study of geography is an exercise in patriotism, as students learn the names of states and capitals. The author includes an allusion to allow readers to
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recall a familiar text.
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And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. The most likely reason King uses allusions in this part of his speech is to
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encourage listeners to envision freedom everywhere.
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Mrs. Valenzuela touched countless lives. She reached out to her students and taught them about history. Every lesson was offered with lively insight. She reached out to her peers and made them smile. The workroom echoed with laughter when Mrs. Valenzuela was around. She reached out to her family members and gave them unconditional love. The most likely reason the author uses repetition is to emphasize Mrs. Valenzuela’s
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personal connections.
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But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. King uses repetition to emphasize the need to
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take a firm stand.
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But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society. Which are examples of metaphors in this excerpt of King’s speech? Check all that apply.
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✘”the life of the Negro” ✓ “manacles of segregation” ✓”chains of discrimination” ✘”one hundred years later” ✓”lonely island of poverty” ✓”ocean of material prosperity”
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Anaphora is the use of a repeated word or phrase that
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introduces a clause or sentence.
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But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. How does the repeated phrase support King’s message?
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by emphasizing that time has passed without social progress
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We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. King’s use of repetition in the excerpt stresses his
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plea for peaceful action.

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