APWH – Chapter 6

Flashcard maker : Mary Moore
What similarities and what differences are noticeable among the three major continents of the world?
Similarities –
-Social inequalities
-Developed civilizations independently
-Depended on agriculture
-All complex societies — centralized governments
-Civilizations featuring cities, states, architecture
-No domesticated animals
-Interaction between Africa and Eurasia

Differences –
-Populations in Africa and Americas smaller than Eurasia
-Americas completely isolated/less linked
-Africa and Eurasia exchanged ideas, crops, animals
-Americas don’t have technology/resources to make metal
Uneven distribution of human population (Eurasia -80%, Africa 11%, Americas 5-7%)
-No pastoral societies in America
-Africa was tropical creating health problems
-Climate, location, foods, products

To what extent did the histories of Africa and the America parallel to those of Eurasia? In what ways if they forge new and different paths
-Americas political structure resembled Greece (no political structure)
-Americas did not have pastoral societies
-Africa had interaction
_Americas are completely separated
-Quipu – knotted cords used to keep record
-Separate writing and domestication for trade
-Develop system of agriculture
-Structures, tombs, monumental architecture
How did the history of Meroe and Axum reflect interaction with neighboring civilizations?
-Both traded extensively with neighboring civilizations
-Axums location allowed civilization to utilize Red Sea and Indian Ocean for commerce
-Around sub-Saharan Africa (Nubian civilization)
-Contact with Rome because statue of Augustus
-Through trade, Axum is introduced to Christianity
-Both developed writing
-Meroe long fought with Egyptians and ruled Egypt for a little
How does the experience of the Niger Valley challenge conventional notions of \”civilization\”?
-Not part of a large empire
-No city states
-Cities without larger, central government
-Few signs of monarchy
-Deep cycle inequalities
-Cities without citadels
-Had occupations, could thrive on trade
With what Eurasian civilization might the Maya be compared, Why?
–Resembled competing city states of classical Greece
-Scientific and mathematical achievements
-Maya could trade with all neighboring city states around Teotihuacan
-Frequent
-Resembled Greece by authority, warfare, fragmented political system
-Also resembled Golden Age in Greece
How did Teotihuacan shapre the history of Mesoamerica?
-Region of 10,000 sq. miles
-Large influence due to space
-Teotihuacan at height from 300-600 B.C.
-In Mexico
-Fairly modern in design of city
What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes?
-Pre-deceasors to Inca
-Chavin most known for their religion (created on back of trade network and provided for economic and cultural integration)
-Art and architecture was influential
-located high in Andes and situated on trade routes to both the coastal region to the west and Amazon to the East
What features characterize the Moche as a civilization?
-Complex irrigation system (13 rivers)
-Governed by warrior priests
-Art – ceramic pottery, pained w detail of noble lords and rulers, images of common life of Moche people, pictures of Gods
What significance did the Wari and Tiwanaku have on the history of the Andean civilization?
-Provided measure of political integration and cultural commonality for Andean region with lack on controlled territory
-Allowed access to resources
-Allowing exchange and redistribution of goods
-Cultural influences from center
-Cultural influence – pottery and textiles
-Complex system of roads converting them to other people and places
-Surplus of food
-Used raised field system — used swampy areas for irrigation
-Established colonies
In what ways did the process of Bantu expansion stimulate cross – cultural interaction?
-Famers
-From sub-saharan Africa
-Called Bantu because of langue spoken
-Known for agriculture – leads to fast population growth
-Brought diseases to Africa with them
-Traded with Batra – participated in trade and exchange – new crops from SE Asia, sugar cane, coconut, yam based diet
-Defined gender roles as separate but equal
-Not patriarchal
In what ways were the histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders similar? How did they differ?
Similarities
-Create great lasting architecture
-Located in North America – Pueblo (New Mexico/Arizona), Builders (Ohio, Mississippi River Valley)
-Ultimately adopted Maize
-Participated in long distance trade – trade with smaller people trading with each other
-Ways to track stars (calendar)

Differences
-Pueblo had direct contact with Mexico, Mound Builders had indirect
-MB – urban centers, mound structures
-Pueblo, starts later doesn’t last long
-MB – started earlier, lasted climax of a long history
-Builders -independent agricultural revolution – did not learn from anybody in particular
-Ancestral Pueblo acquired maize earlier
-MB get corn later from Pueblo

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