apush unit 7 study guide

The “real heart” of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to
use the government as an agency of human welfare

The political roots of the progressive movement lay in the
greenback labor party and the populists

Match each late-nineteenth-century social critic below with the target of his criticism.
A. Thorstein Veblen
B. Jack London
C. Jacob Riis
D. Henry Demarest Lloyd
1. “bloated trusts”
2. slum conditions
3. “conspicuous consumption”
4. destruction of nature
A:3, B:4, C:2, D:1

was less a minority movement and more a majority mood. strong political overtones, and it rejected the church as the driving force for change

Female progressives often justified their reformist political activities on the basis of
essentially an extension of women’s traditional roles as wives and mothers

Match each early-twentieth-century muckraker below with the target of his or her exposé.

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David G. Phillips
B. Ida Tarbell
C. Lincoln Steffens
D. Ray Stannard Baker
1. the United States Senate
2. the Standard Oil Company
3. city governments
4. the condition of blacks
A:1, B:2, C:3, D:4

Lincoln Steffens, in his series of articles entitled “The Shame of the Cities,”
unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.

The muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement because they
sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it with democratic controls

Most muckrakers believed that their primary function in the progressive attack on social ills was to
make the public aware of social problems

The leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor was
women’s christian temperance union

Progressive reformers were mainly men and women from the
middle class who felt pressure from new giant corporations, restless immigrant hordes, and the aggressive labor unions

Political progressivism
emerged in both major parties, in all regions, at all levels of government

According to progressives, the cure for all of American democracy’s ills was
more democracy

To regain the power that the people had lost to the “interests,” progressives advocated all of the
initiative, referendum,recall, direct election of U.S. senators

All of the following were prime goals of earnest progressives
to use state power to curb the trusts and to stem the socialist threat by generally improving the common person’s conditions of life and labor, rooting out graft

The progressive movement was instrumental in getting the Seventeenth amendment added to the Constitution, which provided for _______________
direct election of United States senators

The settlement house and women’s club movements were crucial centers of female progressive activity
because they
exposed middle-class women to problems in cities: poverty, corruption, and conditions

the following was among the issues addressed by women in the progressive movement?
preventing child labor in factories and sweatshops, creating pensions for mothers with dependent children, insuring that food products were healthy and safe, attacking tuberculosis and other diseases bred in slum tenements
except: ending special regulations governing women in the workplace

In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court upheld the principle promoted by progressives like Florence Kelley and Louis Brandeis that
female workers required special protection on the job

The public outcry after the horrible Triangle Shirtwaist fire led many states to pass
restrictions on female employment in the clothing industry

The case of Lochner v. New York represented a setback for progressives and labor advocates because the Supreme Court in its ruling
declaring a law limiting work to 10 hours a day unconstitutional

The progressive-inspired city-manager system of government
was designed to remove politics from municipal administration

Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate that the progressives’ highest priority was
government efficiency, city commission
Giving people more direct power over government

While president, Theodore Roosevelt chose to label his reform proposals as the
square deal

As a part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the following
control of corporations, consumer protection and conservation of natural resources

Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 strike in the anthracite coal mines by
threatening to seize mines and operate them with federal troops if mediation wasn’t accepted

The Elkins and Hepburn acts dealt with the subject of
railroad regulation

Teddy Roosevelt believed that trusts
were here to stay with their efficient means of production

The real purpose of Teddy Roosevelt’s assault on trusts was to
prove that government ruled the city

President Roosevelt believed that the federal government should adopt a policy of _______________

Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act was especially facilitated by the publication of
Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”.

When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he intended his book to focus attention on the
plight of workers in the canning factories, not the processing of food

Of the following legislation aimed at resource conservation, the only one associated with Roosevelt’s presidency was the
Newlands Act

According to the text, Teddy Roosevelt’s most enduring achievement may have been
his efforts supporting conservation/environment

Teddy Roosevelt weakened himself politically after his election in 1904 when he
announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term as president.

The panic of 1907 stimulated reform in _______________ policy.

Theodore Roosevelt is probably most accurately described as
middle of the road politician

As president, William Howard Taft
was wedded more to the status quo than to change.

President Taft’s foreign policy was dubbed
dollar diplomacy

The Supreme Court’s “rule of reason” in antitrust law was handed down in a case involving*
Standard Oil

When Jane Addams placed Teddy Roosevelt’s name in nomination for the presidency in 1912, it
symbolized the rising political status of women, as well as Progressive support for the cause of social justice

Teddy Roosevelt’s New Nationalism*
campaigned for stronger control of trusts, woman suffrage, and programs of social welfare.

Match each 1912 presidential candidate below with his political party.
A. Woodrow Wilson
B. Theodore Roosevelt
C. William Howard Taft
D. Eugene V. Debs
1. Socialist
2. Democratic
3. Republican
4. Progressive
A:2, B:4, C:3, D:1

The Sixteenth Amendment provided for
a personal income tax

The Clayton Anti—Trust Act
explicitly legalized strikes and peaceful picketing

Because of the benefits that it conferred on labor, Samuel Gompers called the _______________ “labor’s Magna Charta.”
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914

The first Jew to sit on the United States Supreme Court, appointed by Woodrow Wilson, was
Louis Brandeis

Woodrow Wilson showed the limits of his progressivism by
accelerating the segregation of African Americans in the federal bureaucracy

Woodrow Wilson’s early efforts to conduct an anti—imperialist U. S. foreign policy were first undermined when he
sent american marines to Haiti

Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson’s approach to American foreign policy diplomacy?

President Woodrow Wilson refused to intervene in the affairs of Mexico until
a small party of American sailors was accidentally captured by the Mexicans, Wilson ordered the navy to seize the Mexican port of Vera Cruz.

Before his first term ended, Woodrow Wilson had militarily intervened in or purchased all of the following countries

Woodrow Wilson’s administration refused to extend formal diplomatic recognition to the government in Mexico headed by
Huerta government,He dismissed Pancho Villa and helped the Carranza cause.

As World War I began in Europe, the alliance system placed Germany and Austria—Hungary as leaders of the _______________, while Russia and France were among the _______________.
central powers, allied powers

From 1914 to 1916, trade between the United States and Britain
pulled the American economy out of a recession.

With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Americans
earnestly hoped to stay out of war

One primary effect of World War I on the United States was that it
conducted an immense amount of trade with the Allies.

President Wilson insisted that he would hold _______________ to “strict accountability” for _______________.
Germany; the loss of American ships and lives to submarine warfare

German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning
in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany

Which of the following American passenger liners was sunk by German submarines?

The Progressive “Bull Moose” party died when
TR refused to run as the party’s presidential candidate in 1916

In the Sussex pledge, Germany promised
not to sink passenger ships without warning

When Woodrow Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the
working class

President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
they announced that they would wage unrestricted sub warfare in the Atlantic

The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
Germany and Mexico

The United States declared war on Germany
after German U-Boats sank 4 unarmed American merchant vessels

President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World War I by
pledging to make the war “a war to end all wars” and to make the world safe for democracy

President Wilson viewed America’s entry into World War I as an opportunity for the United States to
to shape a new international order based on the ideals of democracy

the following was among Wilson’s Fourteen Points upon which he based America’s idealistic foreign policy in World War I?
reduction of armaments,
abolition of secret treaties, a new international organization to guarantee collective security,
and the principle of national self-determination for subject peoples.

The major problem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
he oversold Wilson’s ideals and led the world to expect too much

Match each civilian administrator below with the World War I mobilization agency that he directed.
A. George Creel
B. Herbert Hoover
C. Bernard Baruch
D. William Howard Taft

1. War Industries Board
2. Committee on Public Information
3. Food Administration
4. National War Labor Board

A:2, B:3, C:1, D:4

When the United States entered World War I, it was
not ready for its leap into global war

During World I, civil liberties in America were
denied to many, especially those suspected of disloyalty

Two constitutional amendments adopted in part because of wartime influences were the Eighteenth, which dealt with _______________, and the Nineteenth, whose subject was _______________.
prohibition; woman suffrage

As a result of their work supporting the war effort, women
finally received the right to vote

During World War I, the government’s treatment of labor could be best described as

The two groups who suffered most from the violaton of civil liberties during World War I were
German Americans and social radicals.

Grievances of labor during and shortly after World War I include all of the following
the inability to gain the right to organize, war spawned inflation, and violence against workers by employers

The 1919 steel strike resulted in
The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resulted in

The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resulted in
racial violence in the North

Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on _______________ to prepare the economy for war.
voluntary compliance

Most of the money raised to finance World War I came from

In an effort to make economic mobilization more efficient during World War I, the federal government took over and operated
the railroads

The United States used all of the following methods to support the war effort
forcing some people to buy war bonds, having “meatless and wheatless” days, and seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in American harbors

The World War I military draft

When the United States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe

Those who protested conscription during World War I did so because
hey disliked the idea of compelling a person to serve

During World War I, American troops fought in all of the following countries
Russia, Belgium and Italy

The two major battles of World War I in which United States forces engaged were
St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.

Russia’s withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in
the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France

The supreme military commander of American forces during World War I was
General John J. Pershing.

The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed

As a condition of ending World War I, Woodrow Wilson demanded that
the German Kaiser be forced from power

The United States’ main contributions to the Allied victory in World War I included all of the following
foodstuffs, oil, munitions, and morale

The Germans were heavily demoralized by
the US troop reserves

The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the Paris peace table was that Wilson
did not command a legislative majority at home

Woodrow Wilson’s ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to
establish the League of Nations

At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson sought all of the following goals
preventing a seizure of territory by the victors, a world parliament of nations to provide collective security, national self-determination for smaller European nations, free trade and freedom of the seas.

except:an end to the European colonial empires in Africa and Asia.

Opposition to the League of Nations by many United States Senators during the Paris Peace Conference
gave the Allied leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position

After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Woodrow Wilson
wilson was condemned by disillusioned liberals and frustrated imperialists

In the United States, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was
after the Treaty of Versailles had been signed

The initial Republican strategy regarding the Treaty of Versailles was to
delay and amend the treaty.

Senate opponents of the League of Nations as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles argued that it
robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers.

In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson’s position on the League of Nations came from

The Senate likely would have accepted American participation in the League of Nations if Wilson had
been willing to compromise with the League opponents in Congress

Who was finally most responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles?

Woodrow Wilson’s call for a “solemn referendum” in 1920 referred to
his attempt to use the presidential election of 1920 to gain support for the Treaty of Versailles but it became a death sentence for the League of Nations

Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren Harding’s 1920 presidential victory into a
death sentence for the League.

The major weakness of the League of Nations was that it
did not include the US

The red scare of 1919-1920 was provoked by
the public’s association of labor violence with its fear of a communist

Disillusioned by war and peace, Americans in the 1920s did all of the following
denounce “radical” foreign ideas, condemn “un-American” life-styles, shun diplomatic commitments to foreign countries, restrict immigration
except: enter a decade of economic difficulties.

Business people used the red scare to
break the backs of fledging unions.

The most tenacious pursuer of “radical” elements during the red scare was
Mitchell Palmer

The post-World War I Ku Klux Klan advocated all of the following
fundamentalist religion, opposition to birth control, repression of pacifists, anti-Catholicism
except:opposition to prohibition

The Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s was a reaction against
reaction against the forces of diversity and modernity that were transforming American culture.

Immigration restrictions of the 1920s were introduced as a result of
the nativist belief that northern Europeans were superior to southern and eastern Europeans.

“Cultural pluralists” like Horace Kallen and Randolph generally advocated that
immigrants should be able to retain their traditional cultures rather than blend into a single American “melting pot.”

The immigration quota system adopted in the 1920s discriminated directly against
Southern and Eastern Europeans

One of the primary obstacles to working class solidarity and organization in America was
ethnic diversity

Enforcement of the Volstead Act met the strongest resistance from
eastern city dwellers.

The religion of almost all Polish immigrants to America was
Roman Catholicism

Many Polish peasants learned about America from all of the following sources except
agents from U.S. railroads, letters from friends and relative, agents from steamship lines, Polish American business people
except: Catholic missionaries

Most Americans assumed that prohibition
would be permanent

The most spectacular example of lawlessness and gangsterism in the 1920s was

John Dewey can rightly be called the “father of ____________________.”
progressive educatio

According to John Dewey, a teacher’s primary goal is to
educate a student for life

Of the following, the one least related to the other four is
Frederick W. Taylor

The trial of John Scopes in 1925 centered on the issue of
teaching evolution in public schools

After the Scopes “Monkey Trial,”
fundamentalist religion remained a vibrant force in American spiritual life.

All of the following helped to make the prosperity of the 1920s possible
rapid expansion of capital, increased productivity of workers, perfection of assembly-line production, advertising and credit buying.
except: government stimulation of the economy

The main problem faced by American manufacturers in the 1920s involved
developing expanded markets of people to buy their products

Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, expressed great admiration for Jesus Christ because Barton
believed that Christ was the best advertising man of all time.

The prosperity that developed in the 1920s
was accompanied by a cloud of consumer debt

Among the major figures promoted by mass media image makers and the new “sports industry” in the 1920s were
Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey

Henry Ford’s contribution to the automobile industry was
relatively cheap automobiles

Frederick W. Taylor, a prominent inventor and engineer, was best known for his
promotion of industrial efficiency and scientific management

the following was among the industries that prospered mightily with widespread use of the automobile
rubber, highway construction, oil, glass
except: aluminum

The automobile revolution resulted in all of the following
the consolidation of schools, the spread of suburbs, a loss of population in less attractive states, altered youthful sexual behavior.
except: the increased dependence of women on men

Charles Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic made him an American hero especially because
his wholesome youthfulness contrasted with the cynicism and debunking of the jazz age

The first “talkie” motion picture was
The Jazz Singer

With the advent of radio and motion pictures,
much of the rich diversity of immigrant culture was lost.

Automobiles, radios, and motion pictures
contributed to the standardization of American life

The 1920 census revealed that for the first time most
americans lived in cities

Margaret Sanger was most noted for her advocacy of
birth control

Job opportunities for women in the 1920s
tended to cluster in a few low-paying field

To justify their new sexual frankness, many Americans pointed to
the theories of Sigmund Freud

Jazz music was developed by
American blacks

Marcus Garvey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association, is known for all of the following except
promoting the resettlement of American blacks in Africa, cultivating feelings of self-confidence and self-reliance among blacks, being sent to prison after a conviction for fraud, promoting black-owned businesses.
except: establishing the idea of the talented tenth to lead African Americans.

Match each literary figure below with the correct work.
A. Ernest Hemingway
B. F. Scott Fitzgerald
C. Sinclair Lewis
D. William Faulkner

1. The Sun Also Rises
2. Main Street
3. The Sound and the Fury
4. The Great Gatsby

A:1, B:4, C:2, D:3

Buying stock “on margin” meant
purchasing it with a small down paymen

Which of the following was not among prominent African American cultural figures of the 1920s?
Joseph “King” Oliver, “Jelly Roll” Morton, Langston Hughes, W.C. Handy.
except: Ralph Ellison.

As secretary of the treasury, Andrew Mellon placed the tax burden on the
middle-income groups

Warren G. Harding’s weaknesses as president included all of the following except a(n)
mediocre mind, inability to detect moral weaknesses in his associates, unwillingness to hurt people’s feelings by saying no, administrative weakness.

except: lack of political experience

Match each member of President Harding’s cabinet below with his major area of responsibility.
A. Charles Evans Hughes
B. Andrew Mellon
C. Herbert Hoover
D. Harry Daugherty
E. Albert Fall

1. taxes and tariffs
2. naval oil reserves
3. naval arms limitation
4. foreign trade and trade associations
5. justice and law enforcement

A:3, B:1, C:4, D:2, E:5

Which one of the following members of President Harding’s cabinet proved to be incompetent and corrupt?
Albert Fall

Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding
hoped to encourage the government actively to assist business along the path to profits.

During the 1920s, the Supreme Court
often ruled against progressive legislation

_______________ was (were) adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I.
organized labor

The Supreme Court cases of Muller and Adkins centered on
the question of whether women merited special legal and social treatment.

The nonbusiness group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World War I was

One exception to President Warren G. Harding’s policy of isolationism involved in the Middle East, where the United States sought to
secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies

Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international disarmament because
businesspeople were unwilling to help pay for a larger United States Navy.

The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry

In the 1920s the Fordney-McCumber Tariff __________ tariff rates and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff __________ tariff rates, so that by 1930 the tariff rates had been substantially __________ from the opening of the decade.
raised; raised; raised

Which of the following was not a consequence of the American policy of raising tariffs sky-high in the 1920s?

The Teapot Dome scandal involved the corrupt mishandling of
naval oil reserves

The major political scandal of Harding’s administration resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of his secretary of
the interior

During Coolidge’s presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests and values of
the business community

After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by
excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that “they had gotten away with it

One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was
was overproduction

In the mid-1920s President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to
lower taxes

The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were __________; the intended beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were
farmers, labor unions

the following splits did affect the Democratic party in 1924
“wets’ vs. “drys”, urbanites vs. suburbanites, Fundamentalists vs. Modernists
except: northern liberals vs. southern conservatives

Senator Robert La Follette’s Progressive party advocated all of the following except
government ownership of railroads, relief for farmers, opposition to monopolies, increased power for the Supreme Court
except: opposition to antilabor injunctions

In 1924 the Democratic party convention failed by a single vote to adopt a resolution condemning
the Ku Klux Klan

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