APUSH Period 1 Terms

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MAIZE CULTIVATION Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure. A) The spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico northward into the present-day American Southwest and beyond supported economic development, settlement, advanced irrigation, and social diversification among societies. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from Wikipedia: Maize, known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. Historical Significance: Maize Cultivation was a important factor in many natives lives and the cultivation and spread of the crop encouraged trade and advanced society. After European expansion in to the Americas maize spread around the world becoming a key resource in international trade.
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THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. I. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies. B) The Columbian Exchange brought new crops to Europe from the Americas, stimulating European population growth, and new sources of mineral wealth, which facilitated the European shift from feudalism to capitalism. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from Wikipedia: The Columbian Exchange or Grand Exchange was the widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade after Christopher Columbus’ 1492 voyage.The contact between the two areas circulated a wide variety of new crops and livestock, which supported increases in population in both hemispheres, although diseases initially caused precipitous declines in the numbers of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Historical Significance: The Columbian Exchange effected the life in the Americas greatly, it spread disease which wiped out many natives and turned America into the land with economic opportunity, which consolidation European control of the Americas for the next 300 years.
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JOINTS-STOCK COMPANY Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. I. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies. C) Improvements in maritime technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade, such as joint-stock companies, helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from Wikipedia: A joint-stock company is a business entity where different stocks can be bought and owned by shareholder. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts. Historical Significance: In the times of European expansion and exploration business across the Atlantic was expensive and risky, so to split the risk and fund huge voyages to the Americas joint-stock companies were used. Joint-stock companies often received charters from the government and consolidated control of trade routes and natural resources in far away lands which led to the establishment of colonial settlements. For example, The London Company which established James Town in 1607.
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MARITIME TECHNOLOGY Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. I. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies. C) Improvements in maritime technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade, such as joint-stock companies, helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition: Improvements in sailing or shipping technology which including things like the astrolabe, compass and improved maps that helped navigate the seas which made it easier for Europeans to gain access to american markets. Historical Significance: In Europe an outburst of artistic and scientific activity known as the Renaissance led to many improvements in sea faring technologies. These technologies inspired many, making the exploration and colonization of the Americas inevitable. Further advancements in technology encouraged trade and interaction between Europe and the Americas and eventual European control of the New World.
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EUROPEAN EXPANSION Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. I. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies. A) European nations’ efforts to explore and conquer the New World stemmed from a search for new sources of wealth, economic and military competition, and a desire to spread Christianity. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition: European discovery, conquest and colonization in the new world and their involvement in new markets, interactions with the natives, and other various effects on European and American social, religious and political views. Historical Significance: European Expansion into the Americas changed the worlds markets and international powers goals as nations. The focus became on empire building consolidating as many markets and as much land as you could, this led to the establishment of British colonies in North America which in turn led to the beginning of US history.
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INTERNATIONAL TRADE Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. I. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies. C) Improvements in maritime technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade, such as joint-stock companies, helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from Wikipedia: International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories, which could involve the activities of the government and individual.In the era before the rise of the nation state, the term ‘international’ trade cannot be literally applied, but simply means trade over long distances; the sort of movement in goods which would represent international trade in the modern world. Historical Significance: After the voyages of Christopher Columbus true long distance international trade between societies across the world occurred more often. Although international trade occurred in Europe and the Americas, trade between the new world and Europe impacted economies and life styles of both natives and Europeans.
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CASTE SYSTEM Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. II. The Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere resulted in extensive demographic, economic, and social changes. D) The Spanish developed a caste system that incorporated, and carefully defined the status of, the diverse population of Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans in their empire (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition: Social structure in which classes are determined by heredity, a set of rigid social categories that determined a person’s occupation and economic potential, and position in society. Used in many cultures from Hindus in India to the Caste system set up by Spain in the new world. Historical Significance: The caste system foreshadowing of future american society. For hundreds of years after the caste system the Americas is going to have a social structure based on heredity, especially in minority groups, while majority groups have opportunities to move up in society. Even with the establishment of The United States and the all the rights people gained over the years, slaves were still born into slavery.
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ENCOMIENDA SYSYTEM Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. II. The Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere resulted in extensive demographic, economic, and social changes. B) In the encomienda system, Spanish colonial economies marshaled Native American labor to support plantation-based agriculture and extract precious metals and other resources (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition: The encomienda system was a system of organized labor where a certain amount of land and natives was assigned to a person by the Spanish crown. Used in the new world to control natives, it was very harsh and resembled slavery. Historical Significance: The encomienda system foreshadows slavery in America. With the enslavement of a certain group of people and the harsh working conditions the encomieda system set up a model for slave labor in the Americas. Also the encomienda system made Americans reliant on forms of mass labor which would encourage future slave trade and slavery in general after the encomienda system was officially put to an end by Spain.
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SLAVERY Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. II. The Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere resulted in extensive demographic, economic, and social changes. C) European traders partnered with some West African groups who practiced slavery to forcibly extract slave labor for the Americas. The Spanish imported enslaved Africans to labor in plantation agriculture and mining (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from Wikipedia: Slavery in the Spanish colonies began with settlers’ enslaving the local indigenous peoples under the encomienda system but then moved to the importation African slaves, joining the transatlantic slave trade. Historical Significance: The introduction of imported slaves from Africa to South America started what we know to be slavery in the Americas. It opened up slave trade into the Columbian exchange which also made other African markets grow as well. As populations grew in north America so did a need for labor on plantations, thus slavery grew in North America starting the slavery that we study in APUSH.
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SPANISH EXPLORATION Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. II. The Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere resulted in extensive demographic, economic, and social changes. A) Spanish exploration and conquest of the Americas were accompanied and furthered by widespread deadly epidemics that devastated native populations and by the introduction of crops and animals not found in the Americas. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definitions: The exploration and conquest of the New world by the Spanish Empire which was meant to spread the Spanish Empire and Colonize the Americas. Spanish Exploration opened up new markets and other economic opportunities for Spain in the Americas Historical Significance: Spanish exploration began with Christopher Columbus’ initial voyage to the Americas in 1492. While Spanish exploration and conquest continued in the Americas for many more years most of it was centered in South America. Until Spanish colonies were established in current day Florida, there was little Spanish Colonization of North America which is a reason why most North Americans at the time were not Catholic but in fact resented Catholicism, being Protestant or Puritan.
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SOUTHWEST Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure A) The spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico northward into the present-day American Southwest and beyond supported economic development, settlement, advanced irrigation, and social diversification among societies. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from AMSCO: Dry region that now includes New Mexico and Arizona, groups such as the Hokokam, Anasazi and pueblos evolved here with irrigation systems. They lived in caves, under cliffs, and in multistory buildings. Although when the Europeans arrived there was a small only a population left, their way of life was well preserved in the arid land. Historical Context: The Southwest region did not provide much for the natives neither did it provide much for the European Colonizers which is why this region developed much slower throughout history than the rest, even with maize cultivation being the main force pushing society in the southwest.
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NORTHWEST Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure D) Societies in the Northwest and present-day California supported themselves by hunting and gathering, and in some areas developed settled communities supported by the vast resources of the ocean. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from AMSCO: Along the Pacific Coast from what today is Alaska to northern California, people lived in permanent longhouses or plank houses. They had a rich dietbased of hunting, fishing, and gathering. Most used totem poles to preserve ad tell stories. The high mountains in this region isolated many people creating barriers to development. Historical Context: Previous to European Expansion into the New World the North West developed similarly to the North East and Atlantic Seaboard because of similar climates and resources. When Europeans began to colonize North America much of the Northwest was left out because much easier to colonize closer to the Atlantic on East side of the continent which led to the slowed progression of the west until manifest destiny ideals.
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GREAT PLAINS Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure B) Societies responded to the aridity of the Great Basin and the grasslands of the western Great Plains by developing largely mobile lifestyles. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from AMSCO: Mostly nomadic hunting groups and or sedentary people who farmed and trading. The nomadic hunters relied on buffalo, and lived in tepees which where easily transported. The sedentary people also hunted buffalo but, they lived in permanent earthen lodges along rivers and planted corn beans and squash. Migration through this region was also common like the Apaches who gradually migrated from Canada to Texas. Historical Context: The natives who lived on the great plains were able to live there because they nomadic allowing them to move around with their food source, however later Americans were interested in colonization and settlement which at the time of colonization was not supported by the farming technology so the Great Plains remained primary unsettled until much later in US history.
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NORTHEAST Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure C) In the Northeast, the Mississippi River Valley, and along the Atlantic seaboard some societies developed mixed agricultural and hunter-gatherer economies that favored the development of permanent villages. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Defintions from AMSCO: Descendants of the Adena-Hopewell culture (the mound builders) migrated into present day New York. Their culture combined hunting and farming, but because their farming methods exhausted soil quickly they moved a lot. The Northeast had the Iroquois Confederation which was a union of five independent tribes, which was a powerful force which battled rival tribes and as well as Europeans. Historical Significance: Knowing the natives history of settlement of this area early Europeans knew this would be a great place to start colonization and settlement because it supporteda rich and diverse diets and provided many natural resources.
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ATLANTIC SEABOARD Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. I. Different native societies adapted to and transformed their environments through innovations in agriculture, resource use, and social structure C) In the Northeast, the Mississippi River Valley, and along the Atlantic seaboard some societies developed mixed agricultural and hunter-gatherer economies that favored the development of permanent villages. (source:Content Outline and Thematic Learning Objectives from 2015 College Board Revised APUSH Framework.)
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Definition from AMSCO: In the area from New Jersey south to Florida lived the people of the Costal Plains. Many were descendants of the Woodland mound builders and built timber and bark lodges along rivers. The rivers in the area as well as the ocean provided a rich source of food with things such as hunting and fishing as well as farming and gathering. Historical Significance: The Atlantic Seaboard was the first place colonized and settled in the Americas because it was rich in natural resources and provided many economic opportunities such as timber, shipbuilding and tabaco farming also it was geographically closer to Europe. This is why all original 13 colonies lie on the Atlantic Seaboard.

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