APUSH Pageant Ch. 18

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mexican cession
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historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
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fire eaters
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refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.
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election of 1848
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Candidates: 1. Zachary Taylor-winner, honest, ignorant (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party- made slavery an issue) 3. Lewis Cass-father of popular sovereignty (Democrat). Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president
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lewis cass
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1848 Democratic candidate known as the Father of Popular Sovereignty
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popular sovereignty
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The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
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zachary taylor Whig
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Southern slave holder and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Did not address the issue of slavery at all in his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President, Millard Fillmore, took office.
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free soil party
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Formed in 1847 – 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
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martin van buren
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Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson’s first term, vice president during Jackson’s second term, and won the presidency in 1836
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election 1848
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Candidates: 1. Zachary Taylor-winner, honest, ignorant (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party- made slavery an issue) 3. Lewis Cass-father of popular sovereignty (Democrat). Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president
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california gold rush 1848
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Event that blew the lid off the simmering issue of slavery by admitting California into the Union as a state without slavery-permanently tipped the scales in favor of the North
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california application for statehood
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thousands flooded into state and when gold ran out, they had nothing to do and were lawless; applied for statehood and not territory to avoid becoming a slave state -would mess up equality in senate
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sectional balance issue
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texas claims to santa fe
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washington dc
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runaway slaves
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Many northern states passed “personal liberty laws” in response to the Compromise of 1850’s provision reguarding
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underground railroad
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a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
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harriet tubman
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United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
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fugitive slave laws
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By 1850 Southerners were demanding a new and more stringent fugitive slave law. The slave law in 1850 was more like bribing. the fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf, and they were denied a trial. The federal commisssioner recieved $10 if the slave was not freed.
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immortal trio
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Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster Deadlock and Danger on Capital Hill William H. Seward- senator of New York; antislavery and argued that God’s moral law was higher than the Constitution. President Zachary Taylor seemed bent on vetoing any compromise between the North and South that went through Congress.
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clay’s proposal
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Admit California as a free state; Abolish slave trade, not slavery, in the District of Columbia; Pay Texas $10 million to abandon its claim to part of the New Mexico Territory; So that he could persuade southerners to accept this he said that the New Mexico territory should be divided into two territories (Utah and New Mexico) on the basis of popular sovereignty; He said that Congress should pass a tougher fugitive slave law
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calhoun’s proposal
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John Calhoun’s stated that neither Congress or any territorial government had NO AUTHORITY to BAN slavery from a territory or regulate it in any way.
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webster’s proposal
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stephen douglass
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a Democratic Senator from Illinois who debated Abraham Lincoln during his run for Senator in the Lincoln-Douglass Debates. He was an avid supporter of the Compromise of 1850, supported popular sovereignty, he rescued Clay’s faltering compromise, he divided the compromise into 5 parts to he could mobilize a majority for each issue separately
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webster’s 7th march speech
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Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
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william seward
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Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
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millard fillmore
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Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
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compromise of 1850
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Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
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debate over compromise of 1850
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-Calhoun blamed on Northern aggression against South -Daniel Webster, supported, pleaded for preservation of the union -Southern moderates and northern business leaders opposed secession of the South -Taylor threatened to veto, died, Fillmore signed into law -Secession convention met in Nashville, TN, but did not do anything
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nashville–south extremists
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second era of good feelings
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Came about when the south and the north finally accepted the rulings of senate on the Compromise of 1850. Attempts to secede calmed down and people decoded to bury the issue of slavery.
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northern giants
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southern giants
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new mexico, utah
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The two territories that were organized under the Compromise of 1850 with the choice of slavery left open to popular sovereignty
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fugitive slave law 1850
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came from the Compromise of 1850; federal commissioners were appointed and given authority to issue warrants, gather, posses and force citizens to help catch runaway slaves
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reactions to bloodhound bill
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effects of compromise 1850
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-South gets what they want (tighter new fugitive slave law) -Motivates Northerners to get involved/become abolitionists (By South getting what they want, they lose) -Seward makes it a moral crusade
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election of 1852
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BETWEEN: Franklin Pierce (Democrat) and Winfield Scott; RESULTS: WHIG party splits over nomination Fillmore v. Scott; Antislavery North vs. Southern Whigs that disliked Winfield Scott; Doomed Whig Party – Democratic party united under Pierce! Leads to formation of sectional parties instead of national parties. VICTOR: Franklin Pierce (Democrat)
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franklin pierce
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an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce’s popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
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winfield scott
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was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as “Old Fuss and Feathers” and the “Grand Old Man of the Army”, he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
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jefferson davis
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an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
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interest in central america
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nicaragua 1856
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william walker
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installed himself as the President of Nicaragua in July 1856. He legalized slavery, but was overthrown by surrounding Central American countries and killed in 1860.
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british nicaragua 1856
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greytown
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Town the British secure in order to halt American power over Nicaragua, a key nation to Britain’s trade
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clayton-bulwer treaty 1850
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Signed by Great Britain and the United States, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway. Later revoked by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which gave the United States control of the Panama Canal. (428)
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china
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a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
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japan…,
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a string of more than 3,000 islands east of Asia extending 1,300 miles between the Sea of Japan and the western Pacific Ocean
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commodore matthew c. perry…,
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arrived in Edo Bay with a letter from the U.S. President Millard Fillmore asking for the opening of foreign relations between the two countries
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cuba
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a communist state in the Caribbean on the island of Cuba
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attempts to get cuba
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filibustering
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This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the “opposing” party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.
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black warrior incident
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ostend manifesto
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A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
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transcontinental railroad
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Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
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controversy over proposed routes
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james gadsden
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Jefferson Davis had James Gadsden buy an area of Mexico from Santa Anna for which the railroad would pass. Gadsden negotiated a treaty in 1853 and the Gadsden Purchase area was ceded to the United States for $10 million.
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gadsden purchase
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the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
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effects of gadsden purchase railroad debate
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stephen douglas plan
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kansas-nebraska act
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This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
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popular sovereignty
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The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
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missouri compromise 1820
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Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30′ within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
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effects of kansas-nebraska act
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From both the North and South settlers poured into Kansas. Most were sent by emigrant aid societies, groups formed specifically to supply rifles, animals, and farm equipment to antislavery migrants. Became a violent batlefield and the act could not satisfy either the north or the south.
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republican party makeup
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