APUSH Chapters 35 and 36

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London Economic Conference
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International economic conference called by League of Nations. When proposals were made to stabilize currencies, Roosevelt withdrew his support. Conference ended without any agreement.
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Isolationism
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Abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy
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Good Neighbor Policy
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FDR’s foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rather than military force in the region
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totalitarianism
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A concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism.
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Joseph Stalin
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Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
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Benito Mussolini
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Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
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Adolf Hitler
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Leader of the Nazi party which duplicated the major features of Italian fascism, persecuted socialist and Jews (who Hitler blamed for Germany’s troubles). Hitler was a dictator who was loved by white Germans for restoring Germany’s pride. Wanted to control the whole European continent
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Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
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Close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined. Resulted from Hitler who had supported Ethiopia and Italy. He overcame Mussolini’s lingering doubts about the Nazis.
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Nye Committee & merchants of death
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Nye Committee: In 1934 Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota held hearings to investigate the country’s involvement on WW1; this committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war Merchants of Death: Term used by Senator Gerald P. Nye to describe the munitions-makers whom he blamed for forcing the United States into World War 1. Nye headed a committee that investigated the industry from 1934 to 1936.
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Francisco Franco
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Fascist dictator of Spain that led the Nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s and controlled Spain’s government for nearly 40 years.
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“Quarantine” Speech
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The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
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Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)
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This was the surprise move by Hitler to secure his Eastern front, giving him the green light to march on Poland, and after that, his march on the Western Democracies. Though Hitler and Stalin were foes, Stalin hoped that Germany and the Western Democracies would kill each other off, leaving him the ruler of Europe. At long last Britain and France realized the folly of appeasement. Roosevelt promptly issued Neutrality proclamations including the Cash-and-Carry system. With this pact, World War II was only hours away.
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Neutrality Acts
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The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.
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“cash and carry”
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Policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
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“phony war”
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A phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
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Winston Churchill
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A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
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Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
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The group advocated American military materiel support for Britain as the best way to keep the United States out of the conflict then raging in Europe. Politically, they would be classified as being pro-intervention; that is, they strongly believed the United States should actively assert itself in the War in Europe. The CDAAA supported the Lend-Lease Act; they opposed the various Neutrality Acts of the late 1930’s and sought their revision or repeal. The CDAAA disagreed strongly with another powerful group, the America First Committee, who advocated complete neutrality and non-intervention. The America First Committee believed that the U.S. should not become involved in foreign conflicts.
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America first Committee
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A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
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Charles Lindbergh
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United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean
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Wendell Wilkie
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The Republican nominee for president in the 1940 election, he was a surprise nominee as he had never before run for public office; He criticized the New deal but largely agreed with Roosevelt on preparedness and giving aid to Britain short of actually entering the war. His strongest criticism of Roosevelt was regarding his decision to break the two term tradition established by George Washington.
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Lend-Lease Act
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A program under which the United States supplied U.K, USSR, China, France, and other allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, Military bases in New Foundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. It began in March 1941, nine months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
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Atlantic Charter
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FDR and Chuchill meeting that stated that condemned aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
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Destroyer-bases deal
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U.S. traded 50 old-model destroyers left over from WWI to Britain in return for eight valuable defensive base sites, stretching from Newfoundland to South America
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Pearl Harbor
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The Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in this place in Hawaii. Several battleships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged or sunk. This attack resulted in an American declaration of war the following day. Canada also declared war on Japan. Canadian soldiers in Hong Kong were soon fighting as the Japanese attacked the British colony the same day as this.
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Henry Stimson
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Secretary of War during War World II who trained 12 million soldiers and airmen, the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30 percent of the nation’s industrial output and agreed to the building of the atomic bomb and the decision to use it.
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A. Philip Randolph
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America’s leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories’ refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
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Douglas MacArthur
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(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan’s surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
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Chester W. Nimitz
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Commander of the US naval forces in the Pacific and brilliant strategist of the island hopping campaign
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Erwin Rommel
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“Desert Fox”-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2 and commander in D-Day invasion
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Jiang Jieshi
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(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.
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George S. Patton
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America’s greatest WWII general, he commanded troops in North Africa, Sicily, and other areas of Western Europe. Under his leadership of the U.S. Third Army, more enemy prisoners were captured and more territory was liberated in less time than by any other military force in history. Helped lead the Allies to victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
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Thomas E. Dewey
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Was the 47th Governor of New York (1943-1954). In 1944 he was the Republican candidate for President, but lost to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the closest of Roosevelt’s four presidential elections. In 1948 he was again the Republican candidate for President, but lost to the incumbent President, Harry S. Truman, in one of the greatest upsets in presidential election history.
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Henry A. Wallace
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Secretary of Commerce under President Truman who was fired in 1946 over a disagreement in foreign policy; ran for president against Truman in 1948 on the Progressive party ticket.
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Harry S Truman
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The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt’s death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe’s economic recovery.
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Albert Einstein
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(1879-1955) A German Jew, Stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter contains enormous amounts of potential energy. He also stated that the speed of light is the only thing constant from all frames of reference. He helped persuade Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb.
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Korematsu v. United States
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1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
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Office of Price Administration
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Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. This agency froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
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Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
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Women volunteering for the army would not be given the same rank, pay, or benefits as men who were doing the same thing as them.
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Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVE)
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These women supported the war effort by flying supply missions, decoding codes, and repairing machines
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“Rosie the Riveter”
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A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
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braceros
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Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren’t enough workers.
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Fair Employment Practices Commission
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Aimed at insuring morale and maximum use of labor force by preventing employer discrimination against workers because of race or religion. The efforts of this committee laid the foundation for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950’s.
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
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Founded by W.E.B. Du Bois, it emerged out of the Niagara Movement in 1909. It worked for equal rights for African Americans.
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Congress of Racial Equality
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Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its “freedom rides,” bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
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Navajo “code talkers”
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Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not desipher
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The Hump
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Was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces based in China
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Bataan Death March
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Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way
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Guadalcanal
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This WWII Pacific battle was one of the most famous of all those fought in the Pacific theater, as it was the first major offensive -and crushing victory- of the allied forces against the Empire of Japan.
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island-hopping strategy
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WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
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second front
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the invasion of western Europe by the U.S ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take presure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.
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Teheran Conference
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December, 1943 – A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war’s conclusion to help ensure international peace.
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D-Day
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June 6, 1944. 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported this invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
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Battle of the Bulge
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December, 1944 – January, 1945. After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile “bulge” into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
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Potsdam Conference
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July 26, 1945 – Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
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Battle of Okinawa
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(1945) World War II victory for the Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all of the 100,000 Japanese defenders; the battle claimed 12,000 American lives
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kamikazes
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Japanese suicide pilots
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Manhattan Project
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A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
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Why was the US opposed to the London Economic Conference?
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-doesn’t want to get into a group decision that we don’t agree with -don’t want stable currency–> FDR and “managed currency” (American economy first, inflation is good) -American isolationism= European nationalism
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Reasons for the US recognition of the Soviet Union
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-economic decision -deal with soviets–> trading? any trade better than no trade -Ally in destabilized Europe
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Why did the US grant independence to Philipines?
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-economic liability -because of depression
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Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)
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-independence by 1946 for Philipines -give up rights to army ases -potential for naval bases
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What was the rationale for the Good Neighbor Policy?
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-want to have as many Allies as possible Dollar…OUT! – huge losses, less to protect
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Pan American Conference (1933)
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non-intervention 🙂
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What happens because of no more Big Stick diplomacy?
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-rise of dictators- -line up alliances
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Explain Reciprocal Trade agreements
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-if you do something we’ll do something -improve trade by lowering tariffs ultimately
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Generalize regarding US reaction to acts of aggression by Germany, Japan, and Italy
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-nothing to help! -isolationism -don’t want to get involved
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Neutrality Acts (’35, ’36, ’37)
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1935- can’t sail belligerent ships (no more freedom of seas!) 1936- can’t sell, transport armaments to belligerent nations 1937- Can’t loan to belligerent nations -no distinction between aggressor/victim -tips balance of power to dictators -loophole! when Pres. proclaims existence of a foreign war only
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“Quarantine Speech” results
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-negative response from isolationists–>too aggresssive/ will provoke war! -FDR’s first sign of heading toward involvement -ultimately, FDR backs off due to pressure
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“Quarantine Speech”
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(FDR) 1937, , The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
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Munich Agreement of September 1938
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-England/France agree/appeasement to let Hitler Cezch. -hope he’ll be satisfied and won’t want more -1938>> GB/Fr. appeasement -ultimately, appeasement is not a good policy, Hitler broke agreement
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How did Congress respond to the fall of France in 1940?
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1) conscription, expand army 2) $37 billion air/naval forces, two ocean navy 3) $ appropriated for orphaned L.A. colonies -American Neutrality ended
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How did the US respond to the German invasion of the Soviet Union?s
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-Atlantic Charter/Conference -similar to 14 pts, “united nations” -self determination, disarmament
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Spanish Civil War (American Neutrality)
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-US doesn’t get involved -benefitted dicators -neutrality
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What was the state of American public opinion at the outbreak of war in Europe (1939)?
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They wanted to stay out of war even if they didn’t like what Hitler was doing. -isolationism/neutrality
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Role of Labor unions during WWII, strike policy
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-most unions pledged no strike (except UMW)
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Smith Conally Anti StrikeAct (1943)
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-strike against gov’t operated industry illegal -gov’t can seize/operate stignant industries
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WWII and Women
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-Rosie the Riveter -mothers…gov’t day care! -exaggerates impact -GB/Russian women out paces -post war effect, more women in workforce
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A. Phillip Randolph
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organized a march on Washington DC to protest treatment of black workers in government industries -FDR issues executive order>> no discrimination in defense industries -fair employment practices commision (shows progressive side to FDR)
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How was WWII financed?
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1) income tax>> up to 90% 2) debt!
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Coral Sea
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first carrier based aircraft battle, defeated Japan,navy battle
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Midway Island
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four carriers/tide is turned -decisively defeate d Japan
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Stalingrad
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Europe>>farthest point of Hitler’s advance
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El Alamein
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Africa, MOnty/Patton vs. “Desert Fox”
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Leyte Gulf
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end of Japanese Navy
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Normandy
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DDay, goal was to liberate Paris from German occupation
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US strategy to defeat Japan
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“Unconditional surrender”- no treaties
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What was the historical criticism of Japanese strategy in the Pacific?
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-overextension -could’ve dug in! -Japanese tactical error
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Casablanca
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conference w/ Churchill/FDR unconditional surrender
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Tehran
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Iran, FDR, Churchill, Stalin, plans for DDay
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Yalta
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before Postdam, start talking about post war plans
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Potsdam
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Truman Stalin PM Clement -Truman receives word of A-Bomb, “surrender of be destroyed
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Potsdam Declaration
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Japan surrender or be destroyed
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Why was the selection of the VP so curcial in 1944?
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FDR was old, sick, and would probably die soon. They needed someone who could also be President. Truman becomes Pres. after FDR dies.
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Korematsu vs. US
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The federal goernment had the power to exclude and intern Japanese Americans during WWII
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Why did FDR extend official diplomatic recognition to the U.S.S.R.?
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FDR was motivated to extend official diplomatic relation to the USSR motivated by the possibility of trade with Russia but also the desire to bolster the Soviet Union as a friendly counterweight to the possible threat of German power in Europe and Japanese power in Asia.
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Why did the U.S. want to grant the Philippines independence?
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The US wanted to grant the Philippines its independence to free themselves from the burden. In America organized labor demanded the exclusion of low-wage Filipino workers, and American sugar producers clamored for the elimination of Philippine competition. In truth, the American people were not so much giving freedom to the Philippines as they were freeing themselves from the Philippines.
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Why did FDR embark on the Good Neighbor Policy? What did he do about Haiti?
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FDR embarked on the Good Neighbor policy to gather the Latin American countries as an aid to defend the Western Hemisphere. Embittered neighbors would be potential tools of transoceanic aggressors, so Roosevelt felt it best to befriend them. In Haiti the last marines departed in 1934.
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What was FDR’s policy on foreigntrade and the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)?
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FDR’s policy on the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act and foreign-trade was that he would lower existing rates by as much as 50 percent, provided that the other country was willing to respond with similar reductions. The resulting pacts, moreover, were to become effective without the formal approval of the Senate.
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Throughout most of the 1930s, how did the American people respond to the aggressive actions of Germany, Japan and Italy?
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Though disapproving of the dictators, Americans still believed that their encircling seas conferred a kind of mystic immunity. Essentially, Americans were like, “oh wow they shouldn’t be doing that, but we should not get involved because we are fine over here.” Americans were not so much afraid that totalitarian aggression would cause troubles as they were that they’d be drawn into it.
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Where did fascist aggression occur in Europe?
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Fascist aggression occurred in Africa when Mussolini attacked Ethiopia with bombers and tanks.
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What did the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937 do and not do?
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The Neutrality acts stipulated that when the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent. Marked the abandonment of the policy of freedom of the seas. America failed to realize that they were not in complete control over their own peace. They also failed to realize that that could use their massive power to shape the events of the war rather than allow the dictators to determine their fate.
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What was FDR’s sensational “Quarantine Speech”? How did isolationists react to it?
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Alarmed by the recent aggressions of Italy and Japan, FDR called for “positive endeavors” to “quarantine” the aggressors presumably by economic embargos. This speech triggered a cyclone of protest from isolationists and other foes of involvement; they feared that a moral quarantine would lead to a shooting quarantine. Startled by this response, Roosevelt retreated and sought less direct means to curb the dictators.
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What happened in Czechoslovakia in 1938? What was the Munich Agreement?
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The Munich Agreement gave Hitler a portion of Czechoslovakia called Sudetenland, but he later betrayed his promise of stopping territorial gains by later completely taking Czech.
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What did Germany and Russia (Soviet Union agree to in 1939? What country was the first casualty of their agreement?
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In August 1939 German and Russia signed a nonaggression agreement. This allowed the Nazi empire to make war on Poland and Western democracies, without fear of the Russian communists. The first causality of this agreement would be Poland.
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World War II officially began when? How?
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WWII officially began when The Russian and Nazi government took shares of Poland, in other words, with the fall of Poland at the hand of Germany.
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Which nation did the American public favor of “all aid short of war”?
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Britain
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What reasons motivated FDR to run for an unprecedented 3rd term as president?
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FDR was motivated to do a third term by the desire to assist in this national crisis using an experienced hand.
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What were the provisions of the Lend Lease program? Whom did it benefit? How?
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Under the Lend Lease program America would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of aggression who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic. Accounts would be settled by returning the used weapons or their equivalents to the US when the war ended. It benefited victims of aggression (Britain) by sending over arms when they had no more money or supplies.
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What were the Greer, Kearny and Reuben+James? What did Congress do about this situation?
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These were ships that were involved in shooting battles with German U-Boats while escorting lend-lease supplies. In turn congress removed the teeth from the neutrality act and merchant ships could now be armed.
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Japanese militarists moved toward war with the U.S. because FDR insisted Japan do something. What was that?
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FDR Insisted that Japan remove themselves from China, which they proved unwilling to do.
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How was American public opinion about war on the eve of the Pearl Harbor attack?
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The American people, previous to the Pearl Harbor attack, had been inclined to go against Japan and Germany. With the sinking of the ships escorting the lend lease equipment many American were already full heartedly in the war.
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Why was the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii such a surprise?
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The attack on Pearl Harbor was such a surprise because no American suspected that Japan was either strong enough or foolhardy enough to strike Hawaii.
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When did American neutrality end?
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American neutrality ended on December 8, 1941, officially. The day after Pearl Harbor an angered congress declared war on Japan, and on December 11th the same year Germany and Italy declared war on America.
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When World War II (WWII) began for the U.S. how did Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) call on Americans as Woodrow Wilson did in WWI?
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The gov’t did propagandize at home but the accent was on action (Atlantic Charter didn’t matter)
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What was America’s biggest industrial challenge once it was at war?
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America’s greatest industrial challenge at the onset of the war was boosting itself into a war-time economy in the short amount of time given.
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Why were Japanese-Americans placed in concentration camps during World War II? Were they the most adversely affected minority group by Washington’s wartime policies?
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Japanese-Americans were placed into internment camps during WWII due to fear of invasion by Japan on the West Coast. Yes they were the most adversely affected ethnic group, German and Italian descents were not affected.
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What happened to Japanese immigrants to the U.S. in the period from 1885 to 1924?
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Between 1885 and 1924 nearly 200,000 Japanese migrated to Hawaii, and around 180,000 more ventured to the US mainland. They were a select group: because Meiji government saw overseas Japanese as representatives of their homeland, it strictly regulated immigration. These immigrants tended to be wealthier and better educated.
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Did most Americans have a clear idea about what the war was about when the U.S. entered in 1941?
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No, nine out of ten Americans could not even cite a single provision of the Atlantic Charter, but they did know they had a dirty job on their hands.
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What synthetic material did the U.S. government commission production of due to loss of access to pre-war supplies?
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American government commissioned the production of rubber as a synthetic material, as it’s resources had been cut off by the Japanese invasion.
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What did the Office of Price Administration (OPA), War Production Board and War Labor Board do?
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The Office of Price Administration eventually brought ascending prices under control with extensive regulations. Rationing held down the consumption of critical goods. The War Labor Board imposed ceilings on wage increases. The War Production Board orchestrated the conversion of many factories to produce war supplies.
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Did labor unions increase or decrease membership during WWII?
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Labor union membership increased dramatically during WWII. From about 10 million to more than 13 million workers during the war.
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Why did the U.S. government establish day-care centers for children during WWII?
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The US government established day care centers to care for the children of the some 6 million women who took up work for the war effort in absence of their husbands. (About 3,000 day-cares).
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Why did women leave the workforce at the end of WWII?
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Some women were forced from their jobs by employers to make room for the returning service men. However more than half of women reported leaving due to family obligations.
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Why did African-Americans rally behind the “Double V” (for Victory) sign? Where did they move in large numbers during WWII? Why (technology)? By the end of the war where did most African-Americans live? What was the Congress of Racial Equality? Did they fight in integrated combat units?
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For African Americans the Double V sign represented victory in the war and victory over racism at home. Many blacks moved to the north during WWII, cotton was being picked by a mechanical picker and the need for cheap labor in the south dramatically decreased. By the end of the war most African Americans lived outside the south (about half of them). The Congress of Racial Equality was a new militant organization established in 1942. African Americans did not fight in integrated combat units, and were mostly enlisted into service jobs.
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Did Native Americans stay or leave reservations during the war?
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Many Native Americans left reservations during the war. Thousands of Indian men and women found war work in the major cities, and thousands more answered Uncle Sam’s call to arms. More than half of Native Americans lived in cities after the war.
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Did the national debt increase more during the New Deal or WWII? How was most money raised for the war?
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The war, not the New Deal first ballooned the national debt.
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What was history’s first naval battle of carrier-based aircraft?
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The world’s first battle of carrier-based aircraft was the battle of Coral Sea.
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The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of ______.
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The battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
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What strategy did the U.S. rely upon to wage war against Japan?
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The US used “island hopping” to wage war on the Japan territory.
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Where was Hitler’s greated advance in Europe, later stopped in late 1942 early 1943?
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Hitler’s greatest advance was in the Mediterranean “the underbelly” of Europe. He was later stopped and driven back by the assault on French-held North Africa led by Eisenhower.
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Why did the Allies postpone opening a second (Atlantic) front in Europe until 1944? What did the Tehran Conference have to do with this?
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They hoped that Germany and the USSR would cripple each other. America and Britain were uneasy about Stalin, and these tensions increased even further at the Tehran Conference
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What did FDR and Winston Churchill announce at their wartime conference at Casablanca?
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At the Casablanca Conference Churchill and FDR announced that they would be seeking “unconditional surrender” from the Axis.
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In what order did these occur: V-J Day, V-E Day and D-Day?
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D-Day, V-E Day, V-J Day
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Who commanded the D-Day invasion?
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Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the D-Day invasion.
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Why did FDR win the 1944 election against New York governor Thomas E. Dewey?
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Roosevelt won the election of 1944 against Dewey mostly because the war was going well.
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At the Battle of Leyte Gulf, what happened to Japan as a naval power?
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Japan as a naval power lost about 60 ships in the greatest naval battle of all time.
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What ultimatum was issued at the Potsdam Conference?
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At the Potsdam conference the ultimatum issued to the Japanese was “Surrender or be destroyed” (Okay holy cow like imagine this, we are literally threatening to WIPE OUT a whole entire government, this is insane).
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Did Japan consider surrender before the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
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Japan had sent peace feelers, but had not actually considered surrender until the second atomic bomb was dropped.
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Why did the U.S. use the atomic bomb on Japan?
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The US dropped the atomic bombs to fulfill their ultimatum of “surrender or be destroyed”. The Japanese were not surrendering, so they had to drop the bombs…
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Europe first strategy (ABC-1 agreement)
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Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific.
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Japanese-Americans/ Internment
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Similar to the Red Scare in WWI, many Americans feared Japanese Americans were a threat to American safety. 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into these camps because the US feared that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion. The camps deprived the Japanese-Americans of basic rights, and the internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property.
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Korematsu v. U.S. 1944
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1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
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New Deal (end of)
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Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, and the National Youth Administration were dissolved. President Roosevelt declared in 1943 that the New Deal reform era was over.
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War Production Board
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American factories produced an enormous amount of weaponry, such as guns and planes. The War Production Board halted the manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars. It assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials. Took America out of the Great Depression
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War Labor Board
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Settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high
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United Mine Workers/John Lewis
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This union was created by militant leader John L. Lewis in 1890; its methods, based on his stands on increases in pay, safer working conditions, and political stands, reflect Lewis’ military style. In 1935 it had about 250,000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO.
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Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
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This act authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied-up industries. Strikes against any government-operated industry were made a criminal offense.
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Bracero program
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Program established by agreement with the Mexican government to recruit temporary Mexican agricultural workers to the United States to make up for wartime labor shortages in the Far West. The program persisted until 1964, by when it had sponsored 4.5 million border crossings.
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woman war workers/ “Rosie the Riveter”
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The armed services enlisted nearly 216,000 women, who were employed for noncombat duties. Best known of these “women in arms” were the WAACs (army), WAVES (navy), and SPARs (Coast Guard).More than 6 million women took up jobs outside the home; over half of them had never before worked for wages. Many of them were mothers, and the government was obliged to set up some 3,000 day-care centers to care for “Rosie the Riveter’s” children while she drilled the fuselage of a heavy bomber or joined the links of a tank track
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African-Americans
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Within a single generation, a near majority of African-Americans gave up their historic homeland and their rural way of life. By 1970 half of all blacks lived outside of the South, and urban had become almost a synonym for black.
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Native-Americans
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Thousands of Indian men and women found war work in the major cities. Some twenty-five thousand Native American men served in the armed forces. Comanches in Europe and Navajos in the Pacific made especially valuable contributions as “code talkers.” They transmitted radio messages in their native languages, which were incomprehensible to the Germans and the Japanese
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National debt
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The national debt skyrocketed from $49 billion in 1941 to $259 billion in 1945. When production finally slipped into high gear, the war was costing about $10 million an hour.
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Battle of the Coral Sea
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Naval battle between Japan and the US which halted the Japanese movement towards Australia, but resulted in heavy losses for the US.
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Battle of Midway
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Turning point of the Pacific war, in which Japan attempted to attack Midway but was repelled with heavy losses, proving the advantage offered by aircraft carriers over destroyers.
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island hopping strategy
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The American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
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second front controversy
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The invasion of western Europe by the U.S ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take pressure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.
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Casablanca Conference
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A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.
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Election of 1944
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Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with sweeping victory. 4th term for Roosevelt.
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“Holocaust”
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Mass genocide of Jewish people and other minority groups in Germany during the dictatorship of Hitler and his Nazi party
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Harry S. Truman
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The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt’s death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe’s economic recovery.
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V-E Day
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Victory in Europe Day. May 8, 1945, marked the official end of the war in Europe, following the unconditional surrender of what remained of the German government.
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“Kamikazes”
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In World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships
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Potsdom Conference
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From July 17 to August 2, 1945, President Harry S Truman met with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and British leaders Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee (when the Labour party defeated Churchill’s Conservative party) near Berlin to deliver an ultimatum to Japan: surrender or be destroyed.
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Atomic Bomb(s)
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Used by US in Nagasaki and Hiroshima; raised problems in Soviet-American relations. It led to the postwar nuclear arms race
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V-J Day
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Victory in Japan Day. August 15, 1945 heralded the surrender of Japan and the final end to World War II.

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