APUSH Chapter 9 – The American Pageant

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Society of Cincinnati
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A society established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
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Civic Virtue
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People who exemplify this quality go beyond their obligations by taking an active role in improving the community and the experiences of other members of the community.
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Republican Motherhood
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it elevated women as keepers of the national conscience because they were entrusted with the moral education of the young
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The Articles of Confederation
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the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. The thirteen states were formally thirteen independent countries (\”states\”) until ratification of the Articles, proposed in 1777, was completed in 1781; at that point the \”United States of America\” legally came into existence, but, as stipulated in the Articles (and in the Constitution of the United States that succeeded them), the states retained full sovereignty and all functions of sovereignty not specifically deputed to the government of the federation. – Weakness: no power to tax or control of government
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Federalists
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Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn’t want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens’ rights were already well protected by the Constitution. – James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin
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Anti-Federalists
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They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party. – Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, farmers
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Old Northwest
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Ohio River valley settlements; produced for regions outside their immediate local markets and had a thriving economy, which attracted many settlers to this region in the early 1800’s
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Land Ordinance of 1785
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A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
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Northwest Ordinance of 1787
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Congress defined the steps for the creation and admission of new states. It forbade slavery while the region remained a territory although citizens could legalize it. First congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges. Second as soon as 5 thousand male adults lived in a territory, the people could write a temporary constitution and elect a legislature that would pass the territories laws. Third, when the total population reached 60,000 the settlres could write a constituion which Congress would have to approve before granting statehood
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Shay’s Rebellion
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Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
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Constitutional Convention
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The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
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Virginia Plan
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Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
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New Jersey Plan
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Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn’t want to be bullied by larger states.
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The Great Compromise
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Plan proposed by Roger Sherman, William Samuel Johnson, and Oliver Ellsworth that suggested combining the Virginia and New Jersey plans. There would be two houses, one house having representation based off of population, the other having representation based off of the state. Also included the three branches of government.
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Common Law
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a body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation’s legal system
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Three-Fifths Compromise
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agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress
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The Federalist Papers
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Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
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Philadelphia Convention
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Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
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Federalism
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a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
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Thomas Jefferson
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Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
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Alexander Hamilton
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1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

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