APUSH CHAPTER 4 QUIZ

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New England’s Freehold Society
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-1630 Puritans fled England to create yeoman society(=land owning families) -Small elite and nobles owned 75% land -Tenants(renters) property-less farmed -1750, increase in migration threatened freehold ideal.
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Farm Families: Women in Household economy
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-Women were subordinate to men/husbands -Women were helpmates of husbands -Women were in charge of domestic activities at home -Bearing/rearing children was important/ gave birth to 6-7 kids, married early -Women’s lives tightly bound by legal/cultural restrictions -Although piety was praised, they were excluded from = role at church
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Farm Property: Inheritance
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-European migrants escaped being landless -New England migrants wanted farms to support families to secure competency(pass land to nxt generation) -Kids of wealthy farmers received a marriage portion-land, livestock, equip. repaid them for past labor and allowed parents to pick marriage partners -Once a women marries, all her property is her husbands -X_X husband-dower can USE 1/3 fam prop -Widow death/marriage-divide portion to kids -Fathers duty was to provide inheritances for children-failure would loose status in community
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Freehold Crisis
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-Increased pop-farms subdivided-less adequate inheritance-less control over kids lives-arranged marriages broke -Some kept freeholder ideal by having smaller fams and birth control -Other fams petitioned prov.govt for frontier land grants & hacked new farms -Others improved their farms productivity \”household mode of production\”-fams swapped labor and goods
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Diversity in Middle Colonies
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-NY, NJ, PA-home to ppl w/ diff origins, languages, and religions -People sought to cultural/religious identity and economic opportunities -Population growth resulted in pressured Indians and land was dynamic/unstable
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Economic Growth, Opportunity, and Conflict
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-Previously New Netherland and New Sweden-ethnically diverse-English controlled it-founding PA and NJ -Fertile land and grain exports-brought $ $ growth led to conflict w/in middle colonies and relations w/ Indians
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Tenancy in New York
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-Wealthy Dutch and English fams presided huge manors created by Dutch West India Company and English govner -Landlords aspired to live in manner of European gentry, but few migrants wanted to labor as peasants -To attract tenants-manorial lords granted long leases w/ right to sell improvements -Tenant fams hoped hard work can led to own farmstead but preindustrial tech limited output, land ownership wasn’t easy
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Conflict in the Quaker Colonies
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-Quaker dominated PA and NJ, wealthy distributed =ly -Economic growth brought $ and conflict w/ settlers and proprietors wanting to control land, resources, and pol power -William Penn’s appeal to Quakers and Protestants brought in a lot of immigrants -Overwhelmed by demand for land -Migrants became squatters-settling illegally on land -Penn fam fraud land (Walking Purchase of 1737)exploited Indian to claim +1mil acres of prime farmland north of Philadelphia-bad Indian relations -Immigrants flood Philadelphia, other migrants came as laborers including indentured servants-strong demand for skilled laborers -PA and NY $$$ but conlficts -In contrast, ½ of middle colonies’ white men owned no land and little personal property
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Cultural Diversity
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-Middle Atlantic colonies-European migrants held traditions, creating ethnically religiously diverse communities -Migrants preserved cultural identity by marrying w/in ethnic groups -Exception-Huguenots lost French identity by marrying protestants -In PA and NJ, Quakers shaped culture bc their #s, wealth, and social cohesions -Quakers came w/ few landlords and brought w/ them traditions of goverance, popular part in politics, and social =ity
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The European Enlightenment
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-1543 Copernicus-earth traveled around the sun(undermined traditional christian understanding of cosmos) -Isaac Newton used math & physics to explain movement of planets -Enlightenment thinkers added 4 fundamental principles: lawlike order of natural world, power of human reason, \”natural rights\” of individuals, and progressive improvement in society -John Locke-impact of environment and experience on human behavior and belief, individuals can be changed through edu, rational thought, and purposeful action. ALSO, political authority was not given by god to monarchs, it derived from social compacts that ppl made to preserve natural rights to life, liberty, and property(ppl could change gov’t) -Some clergyman devised rational form of Christianity -John Wise used John Locke-defend giving power to ordinary church members -Influenced puritan minister Cotton Mather-use of inculation
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Franklin’s Contributions
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-Franklin-deist-way of thinking god created universe but left to run on natural laws -Franklin popularized practical outlook of enlightenment -Invented bifocal lenses for eyeglasses, franklin stove, and the lightning rod -1st significant nonreligious periodicals to appear in colonies
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American Pietism and the Great Awakening
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-Some colonists turned to diesm -Others embraced pietism -German migrants carried pietism to America sparking religious revival(renewal of religious enthusiasm) in PA and NJ
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Whitefield’s Great Awakening
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-George Whitefield-follower of John Wesley -Didn’t read sermons but spoke in memory -Told his listeners that they had sinner and must seek salvation, ppl felt \”NEW LIGHT\” -The power of god come down -Strengthened, self confident converts \”new lights\” spread his message -Devotional literature helped to confirm pietists in faith and strengthened communication networks that sustain them
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Religious Upheaval in the North
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-Conservative ministers-old lights -New lights allowed women to speak in public -New lights refused to be silent -Great Awakening undermined legally established churches and tax supported ministers -Great Awakening appealed to Christians whose established churches couldn’t serve their needs -As religious enthusiasm spread, churches founded new colleges to educate and train to be ministers
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Social and Religious Conflict in the South
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-Religious enthusiasm caused social conflict in the church of England -Anglican ministers ignored spiritual needs of Africans & landless whites(40-20%pop) -Middling white freeholders(35%) formed core of church congregations -Prominent planters(5%) held real power, using control of parish finances to discipline ministers
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The Presbyterian Revival
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-Democratization of religion challenged dominance of Anglican church and planter elite -Samuel Morris led Anglicans out of congregation, invited new light Samuel Davies to seek deeper religious experience-ardent passion-sparked Presbyterian revivals, threatening social authority of Virginia gentry -Religious pluralism threatened the tax supported status of Anglican church -To halt spread of New Light ideas, governor denounced them as false teachings-harrassment kept white yeoman and tenants in the church of England
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The Baptist Insurgency
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-1760s New light baptist ministers converted 1000s of white farm fams -Baptists-radical protestants whose central ritual was adult baptism(born again) -Slaves were welcome at Baptist revivals, sensing a threat in system of racial slavery, the house of Burgesses imposed heavy fines on Baptists for preaching to them w/out permission from masters -Baptists threatened gentry authority bc they repudiated social distinctions & condemned the planters decadent lifestyle -Baptist congregations multiplied, challenging customary authority in families and society: reject appeals of evangelical women and Baptist men kept church authority in hands of free born male members
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Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750-1763
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1. Britain went to war against the French in America-worldwide conflic-Great War for Empire 2. Surge in trade boosted colonial consumption but caused Americans to b indebted to British 3. Westward migration provoked war with Indian peoples
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The French and Indian War:
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-Conflict in the Ohio Valley: *French built forts in the Ohio Valley – PA and OH *George Washington essentially started the war in PA -The Albany Congress: *Purpose was to keep Iroquois on the side of the British *Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union – \”Join or Die\” *This passed at the conference, but rejected by colonial legislatures and the British -The War Hawks Win: *War Hawks – those that favor war – seen in War of 1812 and Vietnam *Britain declared war on France, became a world war *Colonists could only be promoted so far based solely on being colonists
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The Great War for Empire:
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-After 9 years of fighting, Britain wins the French and Indian (7 Years’ War) -France is essentially removed from North America – Indians lost a valuable trading partner -Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763): Indian rebellion against colonists encroaching on their land, led to the British issuing The Proclamation Line of 1763
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British Industrial Growth and the Consumer Revolution:
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Britain experienced a consumer revolution that led to increased debt for colonists
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The Struggle for Land in the East:
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More and more colonial farmers sought land near the Appalachian Mountains (would be an issue in 1763)
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Western Rebels and Regulators:
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-Paxton Boys – Scots-Irish in PA that massacred Indians -The South Carolina Regulators: *Regulators demanded more fair treatment of colonists living in the western portion of SC: better taxes, more representation, etc. *Exemplifies conflict between East and West, rich and poor
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Quick Recap
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-Middle Colonies, especially PA, were ethnically and religiously diverse -Enlightenment ideas changed society and encouraged individuals to question authority -The First Great Awakening created religious diversity and questioned traditional authority -The French and Indian (7 Years’ War) removed France from North America and ended salutary neglect -Paxton Boys and Regulators demonstrated tensions between \”east\” and \”west\”

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