APUSH Chapter 27 ID Terms

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Alfred Thayer Mahan
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1840-1914. US Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. Influenced navies worldwide on the importance of building a strong navy. Author of “The Influence of Seapower Upon History, 1660-1783” in 1890. Taught at Naval War College, and was the President of the Naval War College twice.
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Yellow Journalism
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Refers to the treatment of the Cuban Revolution that exaggerated the Spanish atrocities; the sensational stories in William Randolph Hearst’s, New York Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s, New York World, were a factor in the U.S. Declaration of war again Spain in 1898. Yellow Journalism exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
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William Randolph Hearst
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United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism. He utilized yellow journalism. (1863-1951)
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Spanish American War
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In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence., The war was fought in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
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Theodore Roosevelt
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(1858-1919) 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War. He was an ardent imperialist, who adopted the “Big Stick Diplomacy” for foreign relations.
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Treaty of Paris 1898
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The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
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Anti-Imperialist League
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An Anti-Imperialist group that formed June 15, 1898. They objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900.
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Foraker Act of 1900
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Congress gave the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government and, in 1917 granted them U.S. citizenship.
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Platt Amendment of 1901
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Cuban Constitution; said that the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy; U.S. could trade freely, and U.S. could get two bays for naval bases (Guatanamo Bay).
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Open Door Note
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A set of diplomatic letters in which Secretary of State John Hay urged the great powers to respect Chinese rights and free and open competition within their spheres of influence; the notes established this policy, which sought to ensure access to the Chinese market for the US, despite the fact that the US did not have a formal sphere of influence in China. 1899
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Boxer Rebellion
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1900, Was a patriotic rebellion of Chinese nationalists against Western domination. Was defeated by a multi-national force of imperial powers. Manchu Dynasty fell soon after. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a Chinese revolutionist, tried to establish a republic.
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Panama Canal
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Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000.
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Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
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Gentleman’s Agreement
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1907-1908, An informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.

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