APUSH Chapter 12

Oliver Hazard Perry
United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812

William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.

Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

Erie Canal
a 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825

Butternuts
Southern that had been pushed off their lands by plantation business – therefore traveled to the Old Northwest. They didn't want blacks to follow the into 'paradise'

Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30′ within the Louisiana Territory (1820)

War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism

Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country

protective tariff
a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition

sectionalism
loyalty to one’s own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole

non-colonization
Non-colonization is part of the Monroe Doctrine that was written in 1823. Non-colonization said that America was closed to anymore colonization. A colonization attempt by anyone would be deemed a threat to the United States. It was created by the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere.

nonintervention
This term, associated with the Monroe Doctrine, describes the United States decision regarding their involvement in European affairs.

isolationism
US foreign policy calling for Americans to avoid entangling political alliances.

Second Bank of the United States
This institution was chartered in 1816 under President Madison and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and mismanagement haunted it until its charter expired in 1836. Jackson fought against this institution throughout his presidency, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool that rich capitalists used to corrupt American society.

McCulloh v. Maryland
(1819) case that established the principle that the federal government was supreme over the state

Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.

American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.

Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal’s decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states’ rights.

Bonus Bill of 1817
A bill introduced by John C. Calhoun to provide a federal highway linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States

Treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.

Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.

Tippecanoe
Harrison’s victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811 became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.

Battle of Thames
General William Henry Harrison won a decisive victory over the British here, in a battle that also resulted in the death of Tecumseh.

Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 – Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it’s complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largely viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.