APUSH Chapter 12

Romanticism
“Import from Europe” When Americans tried to create an artistic life that would express the the nations virtues.
Frederic Church
painter, Painted the largely untamed Hudson River Valley
Thomas Cole
painter, Painted the largely untamed Hudson River Valley
Thomas Doughty
painter, Painted the largely untamed Hudson River Valley
Asher Durant
painter, Painted the largely untamed Hudson River Valley
Hudson River School
the first coherent school of American art
– active from 1825 to 1870; painted wilderness landscapes of the Hudson River valley and surrounding New England
James Fenimore Cooper
Wrote of the American West and peoples experiences and reactions with nature. Developed ideal of individuals with a natural inner goodness.
The Last of the Mohicans
Defined the stereotypical view of the white frontiersman and native american.
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass; Author of.
Leaves of Grass
Celebrated democracy, the liberation of Individual spirit and pleasures of the flesh.
Herman Melville
Author of Moby Dick. Supposedly the greatest American Author of his time.
Moby Dick
Ahab, Whale…
Edgar Allan Poe
Wrote primarily sad and macabre poems. Evoked images of individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect and exploring the deeper, often painful and horrifying, world of the spirit and emotions.
“The Raven”
Established Poe as a major and controversial literary figure.
William Gilmore Simms
In the beginning, his work expressed nationalism but later he began to support southern institutions more. More against North.
Augustus Longstreet, Joseph Baldwin, Johnson Hooper
Author who focused on backwoods south and focused on ordinary people and poor whites.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalist. Relied on distinction between reason and understanding. Each individual could transcend the limits of intellect. Devoted his life to writing teaching and lecturing.
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist. Relied on distinction between reason and understanding. Each individual could transcend the limits of intellect. Repudiated repressive forces of society.
Walden
A book which Thoreau immortalized his attempt to repudialize the repressive sources of society.
“civil disobedience”
A public refusal to disobey unjust laws.
Transcendentalists
People who believe on can transcend the limits of intellect.
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
George Ripley
Founder of Book Farm. Transcend.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
A member of Brook Farm who expressed his disillusionment with Brook Farm in the novel the Blithedale Romance.
Blithedale Romance
Where Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote scathingly of Brook Farm.
The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the price Individuals pay for cutting themselves off from society.
Robert Owen
Founder of New Harmony. Scottish
New Harmony
Village of Cooperation where all residents lived equally.
Oneida
The Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages. Kids were raised communally.
John Humphrey Noyes
founder of Oneida Community
Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
“Mother” Ann Lee
Founder of Shakers.
Mormonism
a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah.
Joseph Smith
Founder of Mormonism. Visited by God as teenager and wrote the Book of Mormon.
Book of Mormon
A book written by Joseph Smith after being visited by God.
Polygamy
having more than one spouse at a time
Nauvoo
Mormons founded this Illinois town, which became an imposing and economically successful community.
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
Charles Grandison Finney
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the “anxious bench” for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
Cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
“water cure”
Also known as Hydrotherapy, which purported to improve health through immersing people in hot or cold baths or wrapping them in wet sheets.
Sylvester Graham
early advocate of dietary reform in United States most notable for his emphasis on vegetarianism, and the temperance movement, as well as sexual and dietary habits father of graham crackers
Phrenology
a now abandoned study of the shape of skull as indicative of the strengths of different faculties
Orson and Lorenzo Fowler
Publishers of the Phrenology Almanac and early users of Phrenology in the U.S.
Edward Jenner
English physician who pioneered vaccination
William Morton
American dental surgeon who in 1846 gave the first successful public demonstration of ether anesthesia during surgery. He is credited with gaining the medical world’s acceptance of surgical anesthesia.
John Warren
was one of the most renowned American surgeons of the 19th century. In 1846 he gave permission to William T.G. Morton to provide ether anesthesia while Warren performed a minor surgical procedure. News of this first public demonstration of surgical anesthesia quickly circulated around the world.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Doctor who taught anatomy with a sparkle at Harvard Medical School, a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit. Nonconformist and a fascinating conversationalist, he shone among a group of literary lights who regarded Boston as “the hub of the universe.”
Ignaz Semmelweis
Identified cause of childbed fever. Emphasized doctor cleanliness.
Horace Mann
First secretary of education for Mass. Said education was the only way to preserve democracy.
Benevolent Empire
Movements of social reform that focused on the development of public schools, teachers, treatment of the mentally ill, limits on the sale of alcohol, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Convention in Seneca Falls to address women’s rights.
Perkins School for the Blind
This was one of the institutions of the Benevolent Empire. It helped teach people who could not see and exemplified that idea that even societues most disatvantaged members could still be helped to discover their own inner strength and wisdom.
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients – created first wave of US mental asylums
Sarah and Angelina Grimké
Argues men and women are created equal. Often outspoken. Men always said their abolitionism was inappropriate to their gender.
Catherine Beecher
Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Seneca Falls Convention
“Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions”
American Colonization Society
Liberia
Monrovia
Benjamin Lundy
was an American Quaker abolitionist who established several anti-slavery newspapers and worked for many others. He traveled widely seeking to limit the expansion of slavery, and in seeking to establish a colony to which freed slaves might be located, outside of the United States.
William Lloyd Garrison
The Liberator
American Antislavery Society
Frederick Douglass
The North Star
Elijah Lovejoy
The Amistad
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
“personal liberty laws”
Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
Liberty Party
James G. Birney
Free Soil
the belief that slavery must be kept out of the Western territories, for the sake of preserving Northern free labor.
John Brown
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
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