APUSH America’s History Eighth Edition Chapter 10 Key Terms

Flashcard maker : Marvel Brown
the right to vote
Northern landlords, slave-owning planters, and seaport merchants who dominated the political system of the early nineteenth century.
political machine
A complex, hierarchical party organization such as New York’s Tammany Hall, whose candidates remained in office on the strength of their political organization and their personal relationship with voters, especially working-class immigrants who had little alternative access to political power.
spoils system
The widespread award of public jobs to political supporters after an electoral victory. In 1829, Andrew Jackson instituted the system on the national level, arguing that the rotation of officeholders was preferable to a permanent group of bureaucrats.
A meeting held by a political party to choose candidates, make policies, and enforce party discipline.
American System
The mercantilist system of national economic development advocated by Henry Clay and adopted by John Quincy Adams, with a national bank to manage the nation’s financial system; protective tariffs to provide revenue and encourage industry; and a nationally funded network of roads, canals, and railroads.
internal improvements
Public works such as roads and canals.
corrupt bargain
A term used by Andrew Jackson’s supporters for the appointment by President John Quincy Adams of Henry Clay as his secretary of state, the traditional stepping-stone to the presidency. Clay had used his influence as Speaker of the House to elect Adams rather than Jackson in the election in 1824.
\”consolidated government\”
A term meaning a powerful and potentially oppressive national government.
Tariff of Abominations
A tariff enacted in 1828 that raised duties significantly on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods. New York senator Van Buren hoped to win the support of farmers in New York, Ohio, and Kentucky with the tariff, but it enraged the South, which had no industries that needed tariff protection and resented the higher cost of imported dutied goods.
The constitutional argument advanced by John C. Calhoun that a state legislature or convention could void a law passed by Congress.
states’ rights
An interpretation of the Constitution that exalts the sovereignty of the states and circumscribes the authority of the national government.
Second Bank of the United States
National bank with multiple branches chartered in 1816 for twenty years. Intended to help regulate the economy, the bank became a major issue in Andrew Jackson’s reelection campaign in 1832.
Indian Removal Act (of 1830)
Act that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Jackson insisted that his goal was to save the Indians and their culture. Indians resisted the controversial act, but in the end most were forced to comply.
Trail of Tears
Forced westward journey of Cherokees from their lands in Georgia to present-day Oklahoma in 1838. Nearly a quarter of the Cherokees died en route.
classical liberalism
The political ideology of individual liberty, private property, a competitive market economy, free trade, and limited government.
The second national party, it arose in 1834 when a group of congressmen contested Andrew Jackson’s policies and conduct. The party identified itself with the pre-Revolutionary American and British parties that had opposed the arbitrary actions of British monarchs.
Panic of 1837
Second major economic crisis of the United States, which led to hard times from 1837 to 1843.
Specie Circular
An executive order in 1836 that required the Treasury Department to accept only gold and silver in payment for lands in the national domain.
ethnocultural politics
Refers to the fact that the political allegiance of many American voters was determined less by party policy than by their membership in a specific ethnic or religious group.
(Martin) Van Buren
a complex man, a middle-class lawyer with republican values and aristocratic tastes who nonetheless created a democratic political party. Won the election of 1836.
(John) Quincy Adams
enjoyed national recognition; and his family’s prestige in Massachusetts ensured him the electoral votes of New England. Won the election of 1824.
(Henry) Clay
based his candidacy on the American System, his integrated mercantilist program of national economic development similar to the Commonwealth System of the state governments. He wanted to strengthen the Second Bank of the United States, raise tariffs, and use tariff revenues to finance internal improvements
(Andrew) Jackson
The hero of the Battle of New Orleans. His rise from common origins symbolized the new democratic age, and his reputation as a \”plain solid republican\” attracted voters in all regions. Won the election of 1828.
(John C.) Calhoun
Wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) anonymously as the Vice President, and supported South Carolina’s act of nullification — the argument that a state has the right to void, within its borders, a law passed by Congress
(Daniel) Webster
He presented a nationalist interpretation that celebrated popular sovereignty and Congress’s responsibility to secure the \”general welfare.\”
(Nicholas) Biddle
The president of the Second Bank of the United States
(Roger B.) Taney
He was appointed head of the Treasury Department, transferred the federal government’s gold and silver from the Second Bank to various state banks
(John) Tyler
Ignoring his Whig associates in Congress, who wanted a weak chief executive, he took the presidential oath of office and declared his intention to govern as he pleased.

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