APUSH 29-32 Narrow 1

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Michael Harrington
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Author of famous book, The Other Americans – Poverty in the US, which he wrote in 1962. He argued that 25% of the country was actually in poverty, and highlighted the inequalities that plagued the country. It was regarded as a driving force behind the War on Poverty by the Johnson Administration
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Gunnar Myrdal
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Swedish economist; writes “The American Dilemma” says US biggest problem is racism because of stereotype of blacks as inferior among whites; blacks treated as second class by gov., Individual who described race relations as “an American dilemma” resulting from a conflict between the “American creed” and “American behavior”
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George McGovern
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A former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. He lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to Richard Nixon. He was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War.
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El Salvador
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Crisis of Confidence
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Speech given by President Jimmy Carter talking about country coming together and not loosing trust in their government. Talked about wanting to tackle every crisis in 70’s. Speech was given when Carter was up for re-election.
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Operation Desert Storm
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Military operations in Iraq that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.
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Energy Crisis
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when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
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Robert Bork
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1987 nominated by Ronald Regan to be a Supreme Court Justice, Democratic majority in the Senate prevents him from being instituted, beginning of the extreme politicization of Supreme Court Justices
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Economic Recovery Tax Cut
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Fair Campaign Practices Act
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(1974) increase financial accountability on campaigns, response to unchecked imperial power of President
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Robert Kennedy
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He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
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Galactic Network
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First “internet” proposed in 1962 by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT
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Economic Opportunity Act
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Great Society law that established a government office to provide young Americans with job training & a volunteer network that organized social work & education in impoverished areas
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Gulf of Tonkin Incident
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the questionable exchange of fire between US ships and the North Vietnamese gave President Johnson the excuse he needed to get Congrssional approval for the use of military power in the region
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S and L Crisis
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Reagan administration. Deregulation of the savings and loans industry. S&Ls were allowed to invest in real estate. There was a short term boom in real estate, followed by a bubble and a bust and many savings and loans companies either went out of business or they had to be bailed out by govt.
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Madeleine Albright
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first woman to become secretary of state; appointed by BIll Clinton
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Richard Nixon
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Bush v. Gore
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Use of 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
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H. Ross Perot
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A billionaire Texas businessman that became frustrated with government’s crude, ineffective, and controversial policies intended to bolster the economy and balance the budget. He, to gain popularity, avoided the practices he deemed as corrupt and ineffective plainly visible in most political candidates, notably including an alliance to one or more special interest lobbying groups. This, as well as his allegiance to the people, allowed him to have a great deal of impact in the election, even though he lost.
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Caesar Chavez
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Thurgood Marshall
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The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
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New Federalism
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a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
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Doctrine of Preemption
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war undertaken in anticipation of imminent attack or invasion by another nation or in hopes of gaining a strategic advantage when war seems unavoidable.
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Engle v. Vitale
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The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York’s schoolchildren. Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause
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Clarence Thomas
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This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
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WIN
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Impeachment
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Family Assistance Plan
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Daniel Patrick Moynihan. A welfare reform proposal, approved by the House of Reps in 1970 but defeated in the Senate, that would have guaranteed an income to welfare recipients who agreed to undergo job training and to accept work.
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Nguyen Van Thieu
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A general and president of South Vietnam. Notified President Ford that he was of the opinion that North Vietnam had violated the 1973 Paris Peace Accords and asked for $300 million of aid, but the U.S. Congress would not release the funds. He refused to agree to any plan that left North Vietnamese troops in the South.
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Barry Commoner
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The Closing Circle, about pollution. ___ laws of ecology – No such thing as a free lunch – Everything has to be paifd for – Everything must go somewhere.
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Salvador Allende
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President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
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Bakke v. Regents
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US court case in which a black was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
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Gideon v. Wainwright
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1963, a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
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Equal Rights Amendment
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advocated by Betty Friedan and others in 1966 it focused on women’s rights in the workplace fought against legal and economic discrimination against women and lobbied for the __, constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender.
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VISTA
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Volunteers in Service to America, Johnson created this program as a domestic peace corps to mobilize youthful idealism. The volunteers worked with physically/mentally impaired and helped alleviate chronic poverty of migratory workers & Native Americans.
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Conservatives
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Plumbers
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Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
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Search and Destroy
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Gramm-Rudman Act
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Also known as Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Act, this act mandates maximum allowable deficits until 1991 when the budget should balance. It was abandoned in 1991.
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USA Patriot Act
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law passed due to 9/11 attacks; sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information; criticized by some as violating civil liberties
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Earl Warren
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Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969, presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case. He led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes.
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Supply Side Economics
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An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
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Swann v. Charlotte – Mecklenburg
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Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) – This Supreme Court decision upheld the practice of busing in North Carolina to integrate public schools and combat geographic elements of racism. Many working – class whites felt this practice was unfair and many parents transferred their children to private schools to avoid the busing integration, a practice referred to as “White Flight”.
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UAW v. Johnson Controls
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The Supreme Court ruled that a female employee cannot be excluded from jobs that expose her to health risks that might harm a fetus she carries.
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Escalation
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Great Society
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President Johnson’s version of the Democratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
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Us v. Jefferson county Board of Education
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1966 ruled that schools had to take concrete steps to ensure integration, created busing
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Iraq
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Robert McNamara
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President John F. Kennedy’s Secretary of Defense who played a large role in regulating the Vietnam War and advising JFK on it. He was one of the president’s closest advisors and shaped the army in new ways by modernizing it, making it more flexible, and pushing for new reforms in tactics against other countries during wartime. His role was a very significant one as he is largely credited with keeping the war going.
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Dayton Accords
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1995 peace agreement ending the war over the former Yugoslavia, b/t Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia
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Afghanistan
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Betty Friedan
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United States feminist who founded the national organization for women (NOW).
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Black Panthers
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A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
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Chrysler
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Yugoslavia
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Civil war broke out in ___. As the Communist regime fell, ___ was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of “ethnic” cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
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Henry Kissinger
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Contract with America
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In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
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Church Senate Investigations
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Baker v. Carr
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case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state.
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NAFTA
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A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
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Woodward / Berstein
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Washington Post reporters who broke the Watergate story. They followed clues furnished by a secret informant Deep Throat and wrote a succession of front page stories tying the break-in to illegal contributions and dirty tricks by CREEP.
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Panama Canal
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Lewinsky Affair
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High profile scandal involving Clinton’s sexual relationship with a young White House intern; although he repeatedly lied about the affair, he eventually was forced to admit to his relationship, leading the House Republicans to pass two articles of impeachment on the basis of perjury and obstruction of justice; after midterm elections reduced the House Republicans’ majority and public opinion swayed in favor of keeping Clinton in office, he was found not guilty.
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Voting Rights Act
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1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote.
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Ho Chi Minh
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1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
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Rachel Carson
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United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife.
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Tom Hayden
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set up Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in 1960. This was a very liberal group. They set up the new left a political movement to chang poverty & racism by radical means. He led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s. He preached a message that government, corporations, unions, and universities were conspiring to kill the individual. He adopted the term “New Left” to distinguish his individualism from the “Old Left” which included socialism and marxism.
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Richard Daley
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Chicago mayor and political boss 50s-70s. Credited with helping elect JFK in Illinois and for using force against protestors during Democratic convention in 1968.
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Timothy McVeigh
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In April 1995, a van containing explosives blew up in front of a federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people. This man, a former marine who had become part of a militant anti-government movement on the right, was convicted of the crime and eventually executed in 2001.
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Afghanistan
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Immigration and Control Act of 1986
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Provided an opportunity for illegal immigrants to become legal residents (one time amnesty). Penalties to employers who knowingly hired illegal immigrants.
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John Sirica
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the chief judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. He was the judge of the Watergate break-in case and later demanded Nixon’s tapes during the whole fiasco. Prosecuted the trial beyond what was necessary which allowed Nixon’s connection to be uncovered.
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Proposition 209
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passed in CA, which banned state affirmative action programs based on race, ethnicity, gender in public hiring, contracting, and educational admissions
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Griswold v. Connecticut
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Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution. Married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment.
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Paris Peace Accord
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1973 called for a cease-fire, the withdrawal of all US forces within 60 days, the official recognition of the Vietcong and promise that the Vietcong would have a future political role.allowed north Vietnamese troops to remain in the south and for U.S. troops to continue military support for the Thieu government.
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Health Care Reform
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This was a 1993 health care reform package under the Clinton Administration that required each US citizen and permanent resident alien to become enrolled in a qualified health plan. President Clinton set up a task force led by his wife to come up with a comprehensive plan to provide universal health care along these lines. The Health Care bill was defended by Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell in Congress but was ultimately defeated in 1994 because there were not enough Democratic Senators behind a single proposal to pass a bill.
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Detente
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Nicaragua
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John Dean
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He testified against Nixon as well as other cabinet members in the Watergate hearings. His testimony helped led to the removal of several White House officials and the resignation of Nixon. Before his testimony he had been a White House lawyer.
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Terrorists
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Port Huron Statement
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1962; adopted by 60 students determined not to be a “silent generation,” it was a broad critique of American society and called for more genuine human relationships; proclaimed a “new left” and formed the “Students for a Democratic Society” envisioning a nonviolent youth movement transforming the US into a “participatory democracy” as an end to materialism, militarism, and racism; demonstrated the feelings of a disillusioned generation (JFK’s death, police brutality) that made them work for change in the second half of the 20th century.

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