AP World History Vocab. Chapters 4-6

Flashcard maker : Josephine Mack
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon
wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire
dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
caliph
The political and religious successor to Muhammad
Abu Bakr
One of Muhammad’s earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammad’s death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam.
jihad
Struggle; often used for wars in defense of the faith.
Mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
Jizya
Head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories.
Dhimmi
Literally \”people of the book\”; applied as an inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later expanded to Zoroastrians and even Hindus.
Hadiths
Traditions of the prophet.
Abbasid
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
Battle of the River Zab
Victory of Abbasids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital.
Sui
Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern China; united all of northern China and reconquered southern China.
Tang
Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 C.E.; more stable than previous dynasty.
Rajput
Regional princes in western India; emphasized military control of their regions.
Devi
Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual.
Islam
Major world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
Allah
Supreme god in strictly monotheistic Islam.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
Justinian
Early Byzantine emperor, responsible for major building in Constantinople and a codification of Roman law; his efforts to recapture some additional previously Roman territories ended in failure.
umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create a degree of political unity
zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
five pilars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
Ramadan
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset
hajj
A Muslim’s pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka’ba
Senate
Assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constitution.
consuls
Two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman republic; elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy.
Cicero
(106-43 B.C.E.) Conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar.
Aristotle
(384-322 B.C.E.) Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world.
Stoics
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery.
Socrates
Athenian philosopher of later 5th century B.C.E.; tutor of Plato; urged rational reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young.
Sophocles
(496-406 B.C.E.) Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex.
Iliad
Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greeks mythos.
Odyssey
Greek epic poem attributed to Homer but possibly the work of many authors; defined gods and human nature that shaped Greeks mythos.
Doric
Along with Ionic and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles.
Ionic
Along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; more ornate than Doric but less than Corinthian.
Corinthian
Along with Doric and Ionian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the most ornate of the three styles.
Carthage
founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic wars with Rome for Mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the Romans
Punic Wars
3 wars (264-146 BCE) between Roman and the Carthaginians; saw the tranformation of Rome from a land to a sea power.
Hannibal
Carthiginian general during 2nd Punic war; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome
Republic
the balanced political system of Rome from Circa 510-557 BCE; featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and popular assemblies
Julius Caesar
general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in BCE by conservative senators
Augustus Caeser
Octavian later took the name of Augustus; Julius Caesar’s grand-nephew and adopted son; defeated conservative senators after Caesar’s assassination; became first Roman emporer.
Diocletian
Roman emperor from 284-305 CE; restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection.
Constantine
Roman emperor from 312-337 CE; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually.
Shintoism
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshiped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits
Olmec Culture
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
Teotihuacan
Site of classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population of as much as 200,000
Maya
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan; extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion
Inca
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures; term also used for leader of empire
Polynesia
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
Yellow Turbans
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E. in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic
Axum
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands replaced Meroe in first century C.E.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Ethiopia
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa
Sahara
Desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa
Mahayana
Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior.
Jesus of Nazareth
Prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah
Paul
One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of the Church
Pope
Bishop of Rome, head of the Christian Church in western Europe
Augustine (saint)
Influential church father and theologian (354-430 C.E.); born in Africa and ultimately bishop of Hippo in Africa
Coptic
Christian sect in Egypt, later tolerated after Islamic takeover
bodhisattvas
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of Monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established the Benedictine Rule in 6th century;paralleled development of Basil’s rules in Byzantium.
Animism
A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions.
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra)
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father’s family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632
Khadijah
(595-619) first wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader
Qur’an
recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam
Copts
A Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasion of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.
Nestorians
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali’s party.
Mu’awiya
(602-680) Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali.
Sunnis
Political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads.
Shi’a
Also known as Shi’ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi’a resistance to Umayyad caliphate.

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