AP World History Vocab 2.2

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Mamluks
Turkic military slaves who formed part of the army of Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries; they founded their own state in Egypt and Syria from the thirteenth to early sixteenth centuries
Medieval
Pertaining to the middle ages of European History
Mexica
The name given to themselves by the Aztecs
Middle Ages
The period of European History traditionally given as 500-1500
Minaret
A tower attached to a mosque from which the Muslims are called to worship.
Mississppians
Were a Chalcolithic (Copper Age) mound-building Native American culture that flourished from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally
Mita
A labor system used by Andean societies in which community members shared work owed to rulers and the religious community
Moldboard Plow
A form of plow consisting of a plowshare (blade) and hitch attached to livestock. It turns the soil in one run across the field, depositing the weeds and remains of the previous crop under the soil and raising the rain-percolated nutrients back to the surface. This plow also allowed for plowing while ground was wet
Mound-builders
In North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts. The greatest concentration of mounds are found in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys
Neo-ConfuciaInism
A Philosophy that blended Confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism
Parallel Descent
In Incan society, descendent through both the mother and father
Parliament
A representative assembly
People of the Book
A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the face that all three religions had a Holy Book
Quechua
Andean society also known as the Incas
Quipus
A system of knotted cords of different sizes and colors used by the Incas for keeping records
Quran
The holy book of Islam
Ramadan
The holy month of Islam which commemorates the \”appearance\” of the angel Gabriel to Muhammad; fasting is required during this month
Scholar-gentry
The Chinese class of well educated men from whom many bureaucrats were chosen
Seppuku
The Japanese formal language term for ritual suicide. Hara-kiri is the common language term, which literly means \”stomach cutting\”, is a particuallly painful method of self-destruction. Only the samurai class was allowed to commit seppuku
Serf
A peasant who is bound to the land he or she works
Shariah
The body of law that governs Muslim society
Shinto
The traditional Japanese religion based on veneration of ancestors and spirits of nature
Shi’ite
The Branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad’s family
Shogun
Japanese military leaders under bakufu
Shogunate
The rule of the shoguns in Japan
Sufis
The Muslims who attempt to reach Allah through mysticism
Sultan
An Islamic Ruler
Sunni
The branch of Islam that believes that the Muslim community should elect its leaders; the Sunnis are the largest branch of Islam
Tea Ceremony
An ancient Shinto ritual still preformed in the traditional Japanese capital of Kyoto
Tribute
The payment of Tax in the form of goods and labor by subject peoples
Toltecs
Ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means \”Master Builders\”. The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c. A.D. 900 after the fall of Teotihucan
Umma
The community of Muslim believers
Vassal
In medieval Europe, a person who pledged military of other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privileges
Zakat
Religious tax, one of the five basic requirements (arkarn or Pillars) of Islam. All adult Muslims of sound mind and body with a set level of income and assets are expected to pay zakat

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