AP World History units 1 and 2

Flashcard maker : James Hopper
Paleolithic Age
(750,000 BCE – 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
Homo erectus
extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain.. they spread in Africa, then to Asia and Europe
Homo sapiens sapiens
the species name for modern humans. They hunted food, gathered berries,more equality between genders & women breast-fed infants for several years to limit fertility
Neolithic Age
The New stone age which went from about 8000 B.C to 3000 B.C. People who lived during this learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, advanced agriculture (grow crops), and domestication (raise animals). Made agriculture more developed.- beginning of ubranization
Bronze Age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons. Metal work was useful to agriculture
Çatal Hüyük
an Neolithic villiage in present day Turkey. Had brick houses,had religious images, and traded hunted/ gather/grown foods. It later became part of a civilization
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means \”land between the rivers;\” Sumerian culture. Invented the wheel already, isolated-made without previous examples, pottery
cuneiform
Sumerian system of writing using wedge-shaped markings, used in Mesopotamia & in Middle East
barbarian
an uncivilized person
nomads
people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food,
Sumerians
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3500 BCE. Created irrigation technology, cuneiform( 1st human alphabet), system of numbers (based on units of 10,60, &360), and religious conceptions. Made ziggurats, complex religious rituals, city-states
ziggurats
Massive towers, temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshiped
city-states (Sumerian)
political structures which were ruled by a king who claimed divine authority
Babylonians
conquered Sumer and Akkad, Hammurabi greatest king(Middle East)
Hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest codes of law.
Hammurabi’s code
created by Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established high standars of behavior and stern punishments for violators; civil laws regulated mostly everything such as wages dealings and relationships.. social inequalities
Egyptian civilization
Egyptian civilization emerged in northern Africa along the Nile River by about 3000 B.C.E. (POLYTHEISTIC & PYRAMIDS) It benefited from trade and influences from Mesopotamia, but it also produced its own distinct social structures and cultural expressions. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization featured very durable and centralized institutions. Mathematical achievements and impressive architectural structures also characterized Egyptian civilization.
Kush
(Nubian Kingdom) An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.- invaded Egypt
Indus River Valley civilization
civilization from 2600 BC-1900 BC; entire Indian subcontinent-peninsula; possibly had twin capitals called Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; well organized government
Huanghe
Also known as Yellow River; early river civilization in China, site of development of sedentary agriculture in China
ideographs
pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts: typical of Chinese writing
Shang
1st known dynasty in China, produced 1st Chinese writing
Phoenicians
Important trading people who lived on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, started the greek alphabet
Daoism
It is a philosophy which is founded by Laozi in China. Daoism emphasizes living in harmony with nature. Includes ying/yang
Zhou dynasty
after Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system)-decentralized government; invoked the \”Mandate of Heaven\”; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher), rise of Confucianism and Daoism (Taoism)… overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom);
Qin Dynasty
established in 221 BCE at the end of the Warring States Period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; founded by Qin Shi Huangdi; reorganized China into large provinces; developed strong military; centralized government; Legalism; Great Wall was built; national census introduced; had bureaucrats
Legalism
Era of warring states
(402 – 201 B.C.E.) Time period between the Zhou and Qin dynasties in which regional rulers formed independent armies and reduced emperors to little more than figureheads; during this time Zhou Dynasty died
Shi Huangdi
founder of the Qin dynasty and China’s first emperor: brutal ruler: started building Great Wall (forced labor); centralized government; expanded China to Hong-Kong
Han dynasty
A great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty (Shi Huangdi) and adopted Confucian principles. Han rulers chose officials on merit rather than birth. It was a time of prosperity
Mandate of heaven

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